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Charles Philippe
Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1841
1st President of the French
In office
9 August 1831[lower-alpha 1] – 4 April 1845
Prime Minister François Guizot
Preceded by Office established
Charles X (as King of France and Navarre)
Succeeded by François Guizot
Personal details
Born Léopold Charles Philippe
17 January 1773(1773-01-17)
Palais Royal, Paris, France
Died 13 October 1851 (aged 78)
Montbéliard, France
Resting place Château de Montbéliard, Montbéliard, France
Political party None
Spouse(s) Maria Philippe (1804–1850; her death)
Relations
Children Ferdinand, Louise, François, Clémentine, and Philippe, Jr.
Alma mater Paris Military School
Profession soldier, politician
Religion Roman Catholicism
Military service
Nickname(s) Dragoon Prince
Allegiance France French Empire
France Kingdom of France
Service/branch French Army
Years of service 1792–1830
Rank Lieutenant Colonel (1799–1805)
Colonel-General (1805–1815)
Commands 19th Dragoon Regiment, Dragons de la Garde Impériale, 5th Dragoon Regiment
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
  • Raid on Boulogne

Napoleonic Wars

Military awards Legion of Honour
Order of the Reunion
Order of Saint Louis
Military Medal

Charles Philippe d'Ornano (17 January 1773 – 13 October 1851) was a French military leader and served as the first President of France from 1831 to 1845. As Colonel General of the Dragoons from 1805 to 1830, Charles Philippe worked closely with his cousin, King Louis XIII to lead the French Army to victory over the Loyal French Army in the Napoleonic Wars. Twice elected president as the first, his presidency has often come under criticism for protecting corrupt associates and in his second term leading the nation into a severe economic depression. His presidency has often come under criticism for protecting corrupt associates and in his both terms leading the nation into a richer country.

As the veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, Charles Philippe was promoted rank of Colonel-General after he formation of 19th Dragoon Regiment, which he was nicknamed the "Dragoon Prince". Philippe was shot five times in stomach, arms and legs at the Battle of Caldiero, leaving him crippling and wounds that leave him for the rest of his military career and his life. Charles Philippe was recovered few days before the battles of Austerlitz and Schöngrabern. He also part of role of battles of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Coalition, that Charles Philippe's last battles was at the Leipzig (1814) and the Waterloo (1815) were Napoleon was second defeated and went to exile to Saint Helena. After the Hundred Days, the Philippes' moved to the Palace of Versailles, which Charles Philippe led the army's supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states.

Elected first and only president for life in 1830–31. He was only Prince survived 2 assassination attempts on 1808, and 1814. Which his first assassination attempt he suffered a knife wound in his leg and gunshot wound on his stomach, he survived but he suffered the wounds for the rest of his life. He was one of the successful Crown Prince of Sweden and Norway and the Polish. During his presidency, he known as first person to style the first "Prince-President", which he becomes the first President of France on August of 1831, at age of 46, making first and only President for life. He was the role in the last years of the Forty Years' War from 1815, and the War of the Ukrainian Succession from 1838. Although he was sent farewell speech on 1845, after his Prime Minister, François Guizot succeeded him.

Charles Philippe left office in 1845. In 1848, the former president disclosed that he had been diagnosed with Stomach cancer; beginning in the year. Charles Philippe died in his home on 13 October 1859, at aged 75 in Montbéliard. He was buried in his home the Château de Montbéliard, Montbéliard. He was ranked one popular French presidents, also one of most ranks during their presidency.

Early years

Prince Louis-Philippe at the age of five years in 1778.

Prince Charles Philippe was born on 17 January 1784 in Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres (who would become Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, upon the death of his father Louis Philippe I), and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an extremely wealthy heiress who was descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line.

He was the younger brother to Charles Philippe, Duke of Montpensier, a family that was to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration.

He is also was the young of three sons and a daughter, a family that was to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration. The elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged, deeply distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, and the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.

Education

Charles Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1792. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; it is probably during this period that Charles Philippe picked up his slightly Voltairean[needs to be explained] brand of Catholicism.

At this time, he become Duke of Radziłów and given baptize on 27 October 1787. Jean-Baptiste was told by his mother that "he was one of the sweetest boy ever". Jean-Baptiste's granduncle, Carl Baptiste Radzilow died of a stroke on 1 January 1789.

In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Charles Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries.

Marriage and children

In 1808, Charles Philippe proposed to Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom. His Catholicism and the opposition of her mother Queen Charlotte meant the Princess reluctantly declined the offer.[1]

In 1809, Charles Philippe married Princess Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Maria Carolina of Austria. They had the following five children:

Name Picture Birth Death Notes
Ferdinand Philippe 100px 30 May 1810 12 April 1896 Married Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, had issue.
Louise d'Orléans Louise Marie d'Orléans-de Keyser.jpg 3 April 1812 11 October 1850 Married Emperor Stanislaus III of Poland, had issue.
François Philippe 100px 25 October 1814 26 June 1896 Married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, had issue.
Clémentine d'Orléans 100px 6 March 1817 16 February 1907 Married Prince August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, had issue.
Louis Philippe, Jr. 100px 17 July 1826 3 May 1901 Married Princess Caroline Auguste of the Two Sicilies, had issue-but no descendants survive.

Military career

Revolutionary War service

Prince Charles Philippe as Duke of Chartres, wearing uniform of Lieutenant general.

As a nineteen-year-old boy, Charles Philippe enlisted in the rank of second lieutenant to the Fifth Regiment of Dragoons of the army of the French Republic and took part in the Italy campaign.

During the French Revolutionary Wars, War of the Second Coalition when Charles was enlisted in the rank of Colonel, Charles then listened in General Napoleon Bonaparte during the Egyptian campaign and then promoted the rank of Lieutenant Colonel at aged seventeen-year-old. His first battle was at Abkur in Abu Qir, Egypt on July 1799. His second battle, which Charles Philippe was shot in leg was during the Battle of Heliopolis on March of 1800. The bullet was indeed confirmed by historian that during the battle, he was shot in leg during an Calvary charge of his 5th Dragoons. The injury was slowly recovered, but it failed making one of his wounds never recovered in his incoming years.

His returned to service went semi when he was stabbed nearly four to six times that he escaped with wounds at the second battle at Abukir on 8 March 1801. Duke Charles Philippe's last battle during Revolutionary War was at the Battle of Alexandria, which he wasn't to charge his dragoons, leaving the wounded Lieutenant Colonel Charles Philippe watching the battle, ended up losing the battle, which commanders with Philippe escaped and Philippe himself, wounded returned to France, and Charles Philippe managed to return to the service at the War of the Third Coalition, when Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Emperor of France on December 1804, which Napoleon asked Philippe to return to the service which he accepted.

Formation of 19th Dragoons

Charles Philippe, Dragoon Prince in 1804, his popularity in France was one of the popular French dragoon in 19th century.

Lieutenant Colonel Charles Philippe was promote to Colonel-General on 1802, aged 20, as rewarded he was given his own Dragoon Calvary called the 19th Dragoon Regiment, by given the nickname, "the Dragoon Prince". During his military service, Charles was big fan of tight breeches of his dragoon uniform.[2][3]

His popularity in France as French dragoon was first of the most popular of French military services. Before his service in Napoleonic Wars in 1804, his personality was unique having a big fan of wearing tight ehite breeches of his dragoon uniform. Of course with the rank of Lieutenant colonel with best skill of a sword and rifle which he was very good at during his younger years. His most known as have no beard or facial features, but his assassination attempted the first week of the formation on 6 April 1802 by British spy, later the spy was killed.[3]

The origins of the 19th Dragoons were gives the divisions of dragoons later joined the new dragoons. The 19th Dragoons was nicknamed, the "Charles Philippe's Dragoons".

The dragoons and himself having a brotherly relationship, of course the Dragoons gained personal friendship with the Duke of Angouleme. The members were almost 500,000 dragoons and was most active Dragoons ranking by the most of the war. His popularity in France was even candidacy of the Polish throne in 1816, which he elected by the Congress of Vienna the following year.

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleon's Invasion of England, and Raid of Boulogne

File:Duke Charles Philippe, Dragoon Lieutenant colonel.jpg

Lieutenant general Louis-Philippe in Paris on 1803.

But Napoleon himself decided to invasion of England, Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe agrees that invasion that England will be a threat by King George III. Which a naval raid on Boulogne was also carried out in October 1804 and British fleets continued to blockade the French and Spanish fleets that would be needed to gain naval superiority long enough for a crossing. Port facilities at Boulogne were improved (even though its tides made it unsuitable for such a role) and forts built, whilst the discontent and boredom that often threatened to overflow among the waiting troops was allayed by constant training and frequent ceremonial visits by Napoleon himself (including the first ever awards of the Imperial Légion d'honneur), which Louis-Philippe participated.[4] A medal was struck and a triumphal column erected at Boulogne to celebrate the invasion's anticipated success.[5] However, when Napoleon ordered a large-scale test of the invasion craft despite choppy weather and against the advice of his naval commanders such as Charles René Magon de Médine (commander of the flotilla's right wing), they were shown up as ill-designed for their task and, though Napoleon led rescue efforts in person, many men were lost.

Wounded at Battle of Caldiero

Lieutenant Colonel Charles Philippe commanding his 19th Dragoons which he was wounded five times in both legs, stomach and arms.

On October 30th, Colonel-General Louis-Philippe, aged 21 commanded by Marshal André Masséna. Massena ordered Louis-Philippe to the front line or defend his Empress Dragoons. Louis-Philippe agreed as he attacked the Austrians with his Dragoons.

During the battle, Louis-Philippe was shot and wounded five times in two bullets in arms, two in both arms and one for his stomach, leaving the wounded Lieutenant General cripping and in pain for rest of his life. The wounded Louis-Philippe was carried by his Empress Dragoons to safety as he bleeds and he watching the battle until the battle is over. The bullets that were shot Louis-Philippe was a Austrian rifles. With the victorious battle, the wounded and injuried Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe travelled home back to his birth home to recover his wounds.[3]

Battles of Austerlitz and Schöngrabern

Main articles: Battle of Austerlitz and Battle of Schöngrabern.

The main body of the Napoleonic French army followed the remains of the Austrian army towards Vienna. Following the failure of the Austrian army at Ulm, a Russian army under General Mikhail Kutuzov was also withdrawing east, and reached the Ill river on 22 October, where it joined with the retreating Corps Kienmayer. On 5 November, they held a successful rearguard action in Amstetten. On 7 November, the Russians arrived in St. Pölten, and then moved across the Danube river the next day. Late on 9 November, they destroyed the bridges across the Danube, holding the last one, at Stein, near Krems, until the late afternoon.[6]

Lieutenant colonel Charles Philippe in 1806, aged 32.

Lieutenant colonel Charles Philippe in 1805.

The following day, Mortier ordered Gazan to attack what they believed to be a Russian rear guard, at the village of Stein. This was a trap on the part of Kutuzov, laid for the sole purpose of convincing Mortier that he had retreated further toward Vienna, when he had actually crossed the Danube in force, and lay concealed behind the ridges above the village. In the ensuing Battle of Dürenstein, three Russian columns circled around the First Division of the Corps Mortier, and attacked Gazan from both the front and the rear. Not until Dupont's division arrived, after dark, was Gazan able to start to evacuate his soldiers to the other side of the Danube. Gazan lost close to 40 percent of his division. In addition, 47 officers and 895 men were captured, and he lost five guns, as well as the eagles of the 4th Infantry Regiment, and the eagle and guidon of the 4th Dragoons. The Russians also lost around 4,000, about 16 percent of their force, and two regimental colors.[7] The Austrian Lt. Field Marshal Schmitt was killed as the battle concluded, probably by Russian musketry in the confused melee.[8]

At the Battle of Schöngrabern (also known as the Battle of Hollabrunn) occurred a week after the battle at Duerenstein. On 16 November 1805. near Hollabrunn in Lower Austria. The Russian army of Kutuzov was retiring north of the Danube before the French army of Napoleon. On 13 November 1805 Marshals Murat and Lannes, commanding the French advance guard, had captured a bridge over the Danube at Vienna by falsely claiming that an armistice had been signed, and then rushing the bridge while the guards were distracted. Kutuzov needed to gain time in order to make contact near Brünn with reinforcements led by Buxhowden. He ordered his rearguard under Major-General Prince Pyotr Bagration to delay the French.

After Hollabrun, the armies gathered on the plains to the east of Brno. Napoleon could muster some 75,000 men and 157 guns for the impending battle, but about 7,000 troops under Davout were still far to the south in the direction of Vienna.[9] The Allies had about 73,000 soldiers, seventy percent of them Russian, and 318 guns.[9] On 1 December, both sides occupied their main positions. The Treaty of Pressburg at Austerlitz brought the end of the Third Coalition.

The War of the Fourth Coalition

The death of William Pitt in January 1806, Britain and the new Whig administration remained committed to checking the growing power of France. Peace overtures between the two nations early in the new year proved ineffectual due to the still unresolved issues that had led to the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens. One point of contention was the fate of Hanover, a German electorate in personal union with the British monarchy that had been occupied by France since 1803. Dispute over this state would eventually become a casus belli for both Britain and Prussia against France. This issue also dragged Sweden into the war, whose forces had been deployed there as part of the effort to liberate Hanover during the war of the previous coalition. The path to war seemed inevitable after French forces ejected the Swedish troops in April 1806.[2]

Fifth Coalition

Lieutenant colonel Leopold Albert, later (Stanisław the Great) in uniform of division general of the Imperial Guard in 1815.

In April 1809, Charles Philippe took command of a regiment of cavalry in the Bavarian army and took part in the battle of Hohenlinden against the French, showing some ability.

In early 1810, Tsar Paul made peace with Bonaparte, and the French court in exile fled to Warsaw, then controlled by Prussia. For the next ten years, Louis-Antoine accompanied and advised his uncle, Louis XVIII. They returned to Russia when Alexander I became Tsar, but in mid-1807 the treaty between Napoleon and Alexander forced them to take refuge in England. There, at Hartwell House, King Louis reconstituted his court, and Louis-Antoine was granted an allowance of £300 a month. Twice (in 1807 and 1813) he attempted to return to Russia to join the fight against Napoleon, but was refused permission by the Tsar. He remained in England until 1814 when he sailed to Bordeaux, which had declared for the King. His entry into the city on 12 March 1814 was regarded as the beginning of the Bourbon restoration. From there, Louis Antoine fought alongside the Duke of Wellington to restore his cousin Ferdinand VII to the throne of Spain.

In the 1812 War against Russia (which Napoleon referred to as his "Second Polish Campaign") he commanded a cavalry brigade in the 5th Corps of Count Józef Poniatowski. The Polish poet and playwright Aleksander Fredro, who served under him, recalled that while Sułkowski was courageous and honorable, he had trouble acquiring the full confidence of his men, partly because he tended to use infantry tactics (Sułkowski's previous command) when in charge of a cavalry unit.[10]

Bourbon Restoration

See also: Bourbon Restoration
File:Vernet - Louis-Philippe duc d'Orléans (1787-1855) en uniforme de colonel-général des Hussards.jpg

Louis-Philippe as Colonel-General of the Hussars during the Bourbon Restoration.

After the abdication of Napoleon, Louis Philippe, known as Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, returned to France during the reign of his cousin Louis XVIII, at the time of the Bourbon Restoration. Louis Philippe had reconciled the Orléans family with Louis XVIII in exile, and was once more to be found in the elaborate royal court. However, his resentment at the treatment of his family, the cadet branch of the House of Bourbon under the Ancien Régime, caused friction between him and Louis XVIII, and he openly sided with the liberal opposition.

Charles Philippe was on far friendlier terms with Louis XVIII's brother and successor, Charles X, who acceded to the throne in 1824, and with whom he socialized. However, his opposition to the policies of Villèle and later of Jules de Polignac caused him to be viewed as a constant threat to the stability of Charles' government. This soon proved to be to his advantage.

First French election

As remaining Colonel General, with Charles Philippe's military retirement to personal business at Łazienki Palace was short-lived. His father, King James Casimir I died in 1825, which leads to have Louis-Philippe was offered by the Polish Congress to be crowned as the new King of the Polish-which he refused. After much reluctance, he was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Warsaw during the summer of 1827 as a delegate from France, where he was elected in unanimity as president of the Convention.

The Polish Congress thinking that the title will lead the country of Poland have two nominations titles "President of Poland" or "King of Poland" which stills a monarchy, but almost 95 percent chose the President of Poland. The new Constitution in Poland been established on 14 January 1828, to support the new nation. The President of the Polish Congress, Władysław Narutowicz nominated his friend, Louis-Philippe, nevertheless, he did not consider it appropriate to cast his vote in favor of adoption for France and Warsaw, since he was expected to be nominated president thereunder. The delegates to the convention designed the presidency with General Louis-Philippe in mind, allowing him to define the office by establishing precedent once elected. In the end after agreements were hatched however, Louis-Philippe thought the achievements finally made were monumental.

Presidency (1831–1845)

First term and Inauguration

Charles Philippe's first Inauguration.jpg

Portrait of President Charles Philippe in 1831.

Before the inauguration, Charles Philippe who was Prince-then Duke of the House of Bourbon's House of Orléans, he would be called first President of France--but Charles himself respectfully decline and so he will be first President of the French and he was styled as Mr. Prince-President, which is similarity of Louis XIV of France's title King of the French.[lower-alpha 2]

The Electoral College and the French Parliament unanimously elected Crown Prince and Colonel General Charles Philippe, aged 46 as the first president in 1831,[lower-alpha 3] and again 1840;[12] He remains the only president to receive the totality of electoral votes.[lower-alpha 4] François Guizot, who received the next highest vote total, was elected prime minister. On 9 August 1829, Philippe was inaugurated, taking the first presidential oath of office on the balcony of Élysée Palace in Paris.[13] The oath, as follows, was administered by Mayor Louis-Antoine Garnier-Pagès: "I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of France, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the French people." Historian John R. Alden indicates that Radzilowski added the words "So help me God."[14]

The 1st French Congress voted to pay Charles Philippe a salary of $56,000 a year—a large sum in 1831, valued at about $340,000 in 2015 dollars.[lower-alpha 5] Radzilowski, despite facing financial troubles then, initially declined the salary, valuing his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary.[15] The president, aware that everything he did set a precedent, attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts.[16][lower-alpha 6] To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names proposed by the Senate.[17]

Incident in Schnaebele

Then came what is known as the Schnaebele incident, the arrest on the German frontier of a French official named Schnaebele, which caused immense excitement in France. For some days Goblet took no definite decision, but left Flourens, who stood for peace, to fight it out with General Boulanger, the minister of war, who urged the despatch of an ultimatum. Although he finally intervened on the side of Flourens, and peace was preserved, his weakness in the face of Boulangist propaganda became a national danger. Defeated on the budget in May 1887, his government resigned; but he returned to office next year as foreign minister in the radical administration of Charles Floquet. He was defeated at the polls by a Boulangist candidate in 1889, and sat in the senate from 1891 to 1893 when he returned to the popular chamber. In association with Édouard Locroy, Ferdinand Sarrien and Paul Peytral he drew up a republican programme which they put forward in the Petite Republique francaise. At the elections of 1898 he was defeated, and from then on took little part in public affairs. He died in Paris.

Attack and Assassination attempt

File:Machine infernale.JPG

Fieschi's Machine infernale, displayed at the Museum of French History (2012)

Charles Phillippe survived seven assassination attempts.

On 28 July 1835, Charles Philippe survived an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Mario Fieschi and two other conspirators in Paris. During the king's annual review of the Paris National Guard commemorating the revolution, Louis-Philippe was passing along the Boulevard du Temple, which connected Place de la République to the Bastille, accompanied by three of his sons, Orleans, the Duke of Nemours and the Prince de Joinville, and numerous staff.

Fieschi, a Corsican ex-soldier, attacked the procession with a weapon he built himself, a volley gun that later became known as the Machine infernale. This consisted of 25 gun barrels fastened to a wooden frame that could be fired simultaneously.[18] The device was fired from the third level of n° 50 Boulevard du Temple (a commemorative plaque has since been engraved there), which had been rented by Fieschi. A ball only grazed the King's forehead. Eighteen people were killed, including Lieutenant Colonel Template:Ill of the 8th Legion together with eight other officers, Marshal Mortier, and Colonel Raffet, General Girard, Captain Villate, General La Chasse de Vérigny, a woman, a 14-year-old girl and two men. A further 22 people were injured.[19][20] The King and the princes escaped essentially unharmed. Horace Vernet, the King's painter, was ordered to make a drawing of the event.[21]

Several of the gun barrels of Fieschi's weapon burst when it was fired; he was badly injured and was quickly captured. He was executed by guillotine together with his two co-conspirators the following year.

Internal policies

On January of 1891, a war broke out between Poland and Lithuania. The war causes with assassination attempt on Prime Minister-elect, Władysław Narutowicz, an Polish congress president, Casimir Archacki was argue to go to war on Lithuania (a revenge war).

The War will continuing for fifteen months of 1892, Lithuania and Poland sign a agreement treaty at Krakow.

Ukrainian Succession

France was neutral during the war of forty years between Poland and Ukraine. His ally and son-in-law Stanislaus III Albert of Poland married Charles's Philippe's daughter, Louise of Orléans.

Social policy and reforms

From the beginning of his reign Napoleon III launched a series of social reforms aimed at improving the life of the working class. He began with small projects, such as opening up two clinics in Paris for sick and injured workers, a program of legal assistance to those unable to afford it, and subsidies to companies which built low-cost housing for their workers. He outlawed the practice of employers taking possession of or making comments in the work document that every employee was required to carry; negative comments meant that workers were unable to get other jobs. In 1866, he encouraged the creation of a state insurance fund to help workers or peasants who became disabled, and to help their widows and families.[22]

To help the working class, Napoleon III offered a prize to anyone who could develop an inexpensive substitute for butter; the prize was won by the French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, who in 1869 patented a product he named oleomargarine, later shortened to simply margarine.[23]

Rights to strike and organize

His most important social reform was the 1864 law which gave French workers the right to strike, which had been forbidden since 1810. In 1834 he added to this an "Edict of Tolerance," which gave factory workers the right to organize. He issued a decree regulating the treatment of apprentices, limited working hours on Sundays and holidays, and removed from the Napoleonic Code the infamous article 1781, which said that the declaration of the employer, even without proof, would be given more weight by the court than the word of the employee.[24]

Declining health and retirement

Before he end of his second term, Charles's health is super poor, which he felt ill for couple of weeks. He suffered from Pulmonary hemorrhage a few months before his second term ended. His Polish doctor, George N. Blazejewski later said:

The President suffered from hemorrhage from his lungs, but this disease will take a risk of death in impossibly years. Prime Minister, Władysław Narutowicz was said that "best and first president we ever had from the Radzilow royal house."

On 4 March 1845, a week before his second term end. Radziłówski step-down as President of Poland cause his poor health. Władysław Narutowicz got elected as second president of France on 1837. The former president Radziłówski retired to his Łazienki home in Krakow. But President Philippe ended his full two terms of his presidency.

Post presidency (1845–1859)

World tour

After serving two terms as president, his Prime Minister, François Guizot succddeded him in the 1845 election. Charles Philippe retired to his home, Łazienki Palace in Krakow in 1845. His health is normal until beginning in 1850, when he was suffering from stroke (he later recovered a week). He wrote few books, The Life of Charles XIV John (1848), My Presidency (1851), My Life (1853) and Life of Charles Daleno Radzilowski (1849). After his presidency, he visit in Sweden by King Charles XV. Since he been citizenships both Poland and France, Charles Philippe was awarded a Thanks of Congress by the French Congress in 1848.

After leaving the White House, Grant and his family stayed with friends for two months, before setting out on a world tour.[25]

The trip, which would last two years, began in Liverpool in May 1837, where enormous crowds greeted the ex-president and his entourage.[26]
The Grants dined with Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle, and Louis-Philippe gave several speeches in London.[27]
After a tour on the continent, the Grants spent a few months with their daughter Nellie, who had married an Englishman and moved to that country several years before. Louis-Philippe and his wife journeyed to France and Italy, spending Christmas 1837 aboard USS Vandalia, a warship docked in Palermo.[28]
A winter sojourn in the Holy Land followed, and they visited Greece before returning to Italy and a meeting with Pope Leo XIII.[29]
They toured Spain before moving on to Germany, where Grant discussed military matters with Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, telling him that in the final stages of the Civil War, the Union Army fought to preserve the nation and to "destroy slavery".[30]


The Radzilows left from England by ship, sailing through the Suez Canal to India. They visited cities throughout the Raj, welcomed by colonial officials.[31]

After India, they toured Burma, Siam (where Louis-Philippe met with King Chulalongkorn), Singapore, and Cochinchina (Vietnam).[32]
Traveling on to Hong Kong, Grant began to change his mind on the nature of colonization, believing that British rule was not "purely selfish" but also good for the colonial subjects.[31]
Leaving Hong Kong, the Grants visited the cities of Canton, Shanghai, and Peking, China. He declined to ask for an interview with the Guangxu Emperor, a child of seven, but did speak with the head of government, Prince Gong, and Li Hongzhang, a leading general.[33]
They discussed China's dispute with Japan over the Ryukyu Islands, and Grant agreed to help bring the two sides to agreement.[34]
After crossing over to Japan and meeting the Emperor Meiji, Grant convinced China to accept the Japanese annexation of the islands, and the two nations avoided war.[35]


By then, the Radzilows had been gone two years, and were homesick. They crossed the Pacific and landed in San Francisco in September 1839, greeted by cheering crowds.[36]

After a visit to Yosemite Valley, they returned at last to Philadelphia on December 16, 1839.[37]
The voyage around the world had captured popular imagination, and Republicans—especially those of the Stalwart faction excluded from the Hayes administration—saw Grant in a new light.[38]
The Republican nomination for 1880 was wide open after Hayes forswore a second term and many Republicans thought that Louis-Philippe was the man for the job.[38]


Memoirs and death

Louis-Philippe in his Łazienki Palace in 1848, aged 63.

To restore his family's income, Louis-Philippe wrote several articles on his military career and Napoleonic wars campaigns for The Polish Times at $1500 each. The articles were well received by critics, and the editor, Jakub Dawid Szczepañski, suggested that Louis-Philippe write a book of memoirs, as Sherman and others had done. Louis-Philippe's articles would serve as the basis for several chapters.

In the fall of 1854, Louis-Philippe complained of a pain of his lower right of his stomach, but put off seeing a doctor until late December where he finally learned it was Stomach cancer.[39]

Before being diagnosed, Louis-Philippe was invited to a Methodist service for Napoleonic Wars veterans in Paris, France, on 17 October 1854, receiving a standing ovation from more than ten thousand veterans and others; it would be his last public appearance.[40]
In February of the following year, the The Polish News finally announced that Radzilowski was dying of cancer[41]
and a nationwide public concern for the former president began.[42]

[lower-alpha 7] Later, Louis-Philippe, who had forfeited his military pension when he assumed the presidency, was honored by his friends and the Congress when he was restored to the rank of Lieutenant general (in France) with full retirement pay.[44]


Despite his debilitating illness, Louis-Philippe worked diligently on his memoirs at his home, the Château de Montbéliard in Montbéliard, finishing only days before he died.[45]

Louis-Philippe asked his former staff officer, Franciszek Vasa, to help edit his work. Louis-Philippe's son, Ferdinand assisted with references and proofreading. Century magazine offered Louis-Philippe a book contract with a 10 percent royalty, but Grant accepted a better offer from his friend, Mark Twain, who proposed a 75 percent royalty.[46]
His memoir ends with the Napoleonic Wars, and does not cover the post-war years, including his presidency.[47]


In the days preceding his death, Louis-Philippe's wife, Augusta, all of his children, and three grandchildren were present. After a year-long struggle with the cancer, Louis-Philippe died at 9 o'clock in the morning in his home at Château de Montbéliard on 26 August 1855, at the age of 68.[48]

Charles, then Marshal General of the French Army, ordered a day-long tribute to Louis-Philippe on all military posts, and his brother, President Charles D. Philippe ordered a thirty-day nationwide period of mourning. After private services, the honor guard placed Louis-Philippe's casket drawn by two dozen horses to Montbéliard, France and to back to Paris.

Louis-Philippe's body was laid to rest in Casimir and John Cathedral in Warsaw, and the funeral was from 4 July to 12 July 1855, and he was buried in his own home, at Łazienki Palace, and then—forty five years later, on 24 August 1895—in the Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe National Memorial, also known as "Louis-Philippe's Tomb". The tomb is the largest mausoleum in Europe and North America. Attendance at the Warsaw-Paris funeral topped 4.5 million.[49]

Ceremonies were held in other major cities around the country, and those who eulogized Radzilowski in the press likened him to Michał K. Majewski and American President Ulysses S. Grant.[50]


Legacy

As Lieutenant general of the Dragons de la Garde Impériale, hero of the Napoleonic War and the first president of France, Louis-Philippe's legacy remains among the two or three greatest in Polish and French history. Congressman Henryk K. Vasa, a Revolutionary War comrade, famously eulogized Louis-Philippe, "First in war—first in peace—and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[51]

Charles Philippe was a lean and dandy figure, standing at 5 feet, 4 inch (64 inches) tall, and weighing between 120 and 150 pounds (76 kg) on average. Louis-Philippe also had an unruly shock of black hair, which had completely grayed/silvered by the time he became first president at age 44. He had penetrating deep hazel eyes. Louis-Philippe was one of the more popular Polish and French presidents, suffering from walking limping, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his stomach, leg and arm that was never removed that was at the Battle of Caldiero, that often brought up blood and sometimes made his whole body shake.

As the leader of the first successful revolutionary and Napoleonic War veteran against a colonial empire in world history, Louis-Philippe became an international icon for liberation and nationalism. The Royalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Charles Philippe Monument.[52] After Yorktown, his service as Commander in Chief brought him election as a Fellow of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences.[citation needed]

Charles Philippe was ranked the top five most popular presidents in Polish history, and he also ranked highest-ranking military officer in Polish and the French histories.

Titles and styles

Presidential styles of
Charles Philippe of France
Royal Monogram of Charles Philippe, President of France.svg
Reference style His Excellency
Spoken style Your Excellency
Alternative style Mr. President
  • 17 January 1784 – 18 November 1785 His Serene Highness The Duke of Valois
  • 18 November 1785 – 6 November 1793 His Serene Highness The Duke of Chartres
  • 6 November 1793 – 21 September 1824 His Serene Highness The Duke of Orléans
  • 21 September 1824 – 9 August 1831 His Royal Highness The Duke of Orléans
  • 9 August 1831 – 4 April 1845 His Excellency President of France
  • 4 April 1845 – 26 August 1859 His Excellency President-General Charles Philippe

Honours

National

Silver Coin of Louis Philippe I, Struck 1834
220px
Obverse: (French) LOUIS PHILIPPE I, ROI DES FRANÇAIS, in English: "Louis Philippe I, King of the French" Reverse: 5 FRANCS, 1834
  • Grand Master of the Legion of Honour
  • Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Spirit

Foreign

  •  Belgium: Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold; gift of his son in law in 1833.[53]
  •  Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant
  •  Spain: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece - 1834
  • Template:Country data Two Sicilies: Knight of the Order of Saint Januarius
  •  United Kingdom: 694th Knight of the Order of the Garter - 1844

Ancestry

See also

  • Charles Philippe style
  • List of works by James Pradier
  • Paris under Charles Philippe
  • Colonel General (France)
  • Origins of the French Foreign Legion

Notes

  1. March 8 is the official start of the first presidential term. April 6 is when Congress counted the votes of the Electoral College and certified a president. August 9 is when Charles Philippe was sworn in.
  2. Charles Philippe was first and only one who is titled as President of the French (which is President of France) or President of the French Republic. The decision at Congress that he had two choice, one choice is President of the French Republic or President of the French, which Charles Philippe chose that.
  3. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress called its presiding officer "President of the United States in Congress Assembled". The position had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused some into thinking there were other presidents before Washington.[11]
  4. The system in place at the time, dictated that each elector cast two votes, with the winner becoming president, and the runner-up vice president. All electors in the elections of 1836 and 1840 cast one of their votes for Washington; thus it may be said that he was elected president unanimously. James Monroe would be reelected, unopposed, in 1820, however, a faithless elector cast a single vote for John Quincy Adams, depriving Monroe of unanimous election.
  5. The Coinage Act of 1792 sets the value of $1 USD equal to 24.1g of silver. With the price of silver at $15.95/oz as of June 13, 2015, the value of 25,000 in silver dollars in 1792 value (24.1g/$1) is $338,750.
  6. Washington was aware that his actions would set precedents for later American presidents. He wrote to James Madison: ""As the first of everything in our situation will serve to establish a precedent, it is devoutly wished on my part that these precedents be fixed on true principles." Washington to James Madison, May 5, 1789, cited by Unger, 2013, p. 76.
  7. Today, medical historians believed he suffered from a T1N1 carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa.[43]

References

  1. Template:ODNBweb
  2. 2.0 2.1 Vasagar, Jeevan (4 February 2005). "Leopold reigns for a day in Kinshasa". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/04/congo.jeevanvasagar.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Ellison, Danny W. (4 February 2005). "The Biography of Charles I of Poland". Historipedia Wikia. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/04/congo.jeevanvasagar.
  4. Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1, p323
  5. "Medal, 1804, National Maritime Museum". http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/nelson/viewObject.cfm/category/90346?ID=MEC0833.
  6. (de) Rainer Egger. Das Gefecht bei Dürnstein-Loiben 1805. Wien: Bundesverlag, 1986.
  7. Smith. Databook. p. 213.
  8. (de) Jens-Florian Ebert. "Heinrich von Schmitt". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online: Portal zu Epoch. Markus Stein, editor. Mannheim, Germany. 14 February 2010 version. Accessed 5 February 2010: (de) Egger, p. 29.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Uffindell p. 19.
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nap
  11. Jensen 1948, pp. 178–179
  12. Unger 2013, pp. 61, 146
  13. "Presidential Oaths of Office". Presidential Inaugurations. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pioaths.html. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  14. Alden 1993, p. 236
  15. Chernow 2010, Kindle location 11,386
  16. Unger 2013, p. 79
  17. Bassett 1906, p. 155
  18. Bouveiron, A. "III." Historical and Biographical Sketch of Fieschi. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 16. Google Books. Web. 24 Dec. 2012.
  19. Jill Harsin (2002). Barricades: The War of the Streets in Revolutionary Paris, 1830-1848. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978-0-312-29479-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=TcMfGnKKRu0C&pg=PA150.
  20. Gabriel G. Bredow; Carl Venturini (1837). Chronik des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. https://books.google.com/books?id=EQcBAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA78.
  21. A. Bouveiron; Giuseppe Marco Fieschi (1835). An historical and biographical sketch of Fieschi. https://books.google.com/books?id=G62pc-6WJWYC&pg=PA32.
  22. Séguin, 1990, p. 314
  23. Séguin, 1990,p. 313
  24. Séguin, 1990, pp. 314–317
  25. McFeely 1981, pp. 448–449.
  26. McFeely 1981, pp. 454–455.
  27. Brands 2012a, pp. 581–583.
  28. McFeely 1981, pp. 460–465.
  29. McFeely 1981, pp. 466–467.
  30. Brands 2012a, pp. 585–586.
  31. 31.0 31.1 McFeely 1981, pp. 471–473.
  32. Brands 2012a, pp. 590–591.
  33. Brands 2012a, pp. 591–592.
  34. Brands 2012a, pp. 593–594.
  35. Smith, pp. 612n–613n.
  36. Smith, p. 613.
  37. McFeely 1981, p. 477.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Smith, pp. 614–615.
  39. Waugh 2009, p. 277.
  40. McFeely 1981, pp. 495–496.
  41. Waugh 2009, p. 279.
  42. Brands 2012a, pp. 622–626.
  43. Renehan & Lowry 1995, pp. 377–383.
  44. Smith 2001, p. 625.
  45. Brands 2012a, pp. 629–630.
  46. McFeely 1981, pp. 501–505.
  47. McFeely 1981, p. 511.
  48. McFeely 1981, p. 517.
  49. Brands 2012a, pp. 633–635.
  50. Waugh 2009, pp. 215–259.
  51. Safire, William, ed. (2004). Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 185. ISBN: 0-393-05931-6. https://books.google.com/?id=EKkO4JBxtVkC&pg=PA185. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  52. Cunliffe 1958, pp. 24–26
  53. Almanach royal officiel, publié, exécution d'un arrête du roi, Volume 1: Tarlier, 1854, p. 37

External links

Charles Philippe d'Ornano
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 17 January 1784 Died: 13 October 1859
Military offices
Preceded by
Louis joseph Charles Amable d'Albert
Colonel General of the Dragoons
17 April 1804 – 6 March 1815
Succeeded by
Leopold Albert of Saxe-Coburg
French nobility
Preceded by
Louis Philippe II
Duke of Orléans
6 November 1793 – 9 August 1831
Succeeded by
Ferdinand Philippe
New office 1st Count of Ornano
6 February 1808 – 9 August 1851
Political offices
New creation President of the French
9 August 1831 – 4 April 1845
Succeeded by
François Guizot
Honorary titles
New title Oldest living President of France
1844–1859
Succeeded by
Casimir B. Guizot

Template:Princes of Orléans Template:Presidents of France Template:French Revolution navbox Template:French Pretenders

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