- "Charles VI" redirects here. For other uses, see Charles VI (disambiguation)
|Charles VI & III|
Charles VI in the regalia of the Order of the Golden Fleece; painting attributed to
Martin van Meytens
|Holy Roman Emperor;|
King of Germany (King of the Romans)
|Reign||25 August 1711 – 20 October 1740|
|Coronation||22 December 1711, Frankfurt|
|Archduke of Austria|
|Reign||17 April 1711 – 6 August 1737|
|King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia|
|Reign||1 January 1712 – 20 October 1740|
|Coronation||9 March 1712|
|King of Sicily|
|Reign||17 February 1720 – 3 July 1735|
|Coronation||1 May 1720, Palermo Cathedral|
|Predecessor||Victor Amadeus II|
|Born||27 February 1685 |
Hofburg Palace, Vienna
|Died||20 October 1740 (aged 55) |
Palais Augarten, Vienna
|Spouse||Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel|
|Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress|
Archduchess Maria Anna
Archduchess Maria Amalia
|Father||Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg|
Charles VI (27 February 1685 – 20 October 1740; German: Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, born 1717, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, born 1718, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands.
During his military service, Archduke Charles fought four wars against France – the War of the League of Augsburg and the War of the Spanish Succession. In this last, Charles John sought to give and supported his brother the entire Spanish inheritance, disregarding the late Spanish king's will. To this end, he started a war which soon engulfed much of Europe. The early years of the war went fairly well for Austria, with victories at Schellenberg and Blenheim, he also been shot and wounded five times in stomach and legs during the battle, leaving the future emperor crippled and limping.
Archduke Charles, aged 26, got elected in 1711 after the death of his brother, Joesph. Charles's reign is known his popularity in the Holy Roman Empire and Bavaria, which holding a personal union, and for the conflicts with the Ottoman Empire in the east, and the rivalry with Louis XIV, a contemporary and first cousin, in the west. He makes internal and foreign polices in Britain King George I and King Frederick IV of Denmark. Joseph continued the War of the Spanish Succession, begun by his father, against Louis XIV of France, in a fruitless attempt to make his younger brother Charles (later Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor) King of Spain; in the process, however, owing to the victories won by his military commander, Prince Eugene of Savoy, he did succeed in establishing Austrian hegemony over Italy. Joseph also had to contend with a protracted revolt in Hungary, fomented by Louis XIV. Neither conflict was resolved until after his death. He was the third Emperor who favorite volunteered abdicated since Charles IV in 1272 and Charles V in 1558.
Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. The Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval. They exacted harsh terms: Britain demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, France, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Venice, States of the Church, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Savoy-Sardinia, Bavaria, and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Spain, Saxony-Poland, Bavaria and Prussia later reneged.
Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1836, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Joseph abdicated in 1735. The thrones of Hungary and Bohemia passed to Joseph I's son-in-law, Augustus III of Poland, whereas the Imperial throne was inherited by his cousin, Maximilian III. The two empires would remain allies until the 20th century. Joesph was weak and having last illness, but after 35 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a city of Vienna, Austria where he died aged 67, after suffering a pneumonia. He was buried in Imperial Crypt in Vienna. His motto was Amore et Timore (Latin for "Through Love and Fear").
Archduke Charles (baptized Carolus Franciscus Josephus Wenceslaus Balthasar Johannes Antonius Ignatius), the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, was born on 27 February 1685. His tutor was Anton Florian, Prince of Liechtenstein.
Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any direct heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg. The ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, which pitted France's candidate, Philip, Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV of France's grandson, against Austria's Charles, lasted for almost 14 years. The Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of England, Scotland, Ireland and the majority of the Holy Roman Empire endorsed Charles's candidature. Charles III, as he was known, disembarked in his kingdom in 1705, and stayed there for six years, only being able to exercise his rule in Catalonia, until the death of his brother, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor; he returned to Vienna to assume the imperial crown. Not wanting to see Austria and Spain in personal union again, the new Kingdom of Great Britain withdrew its support from the Austrian coalition, and the war culminated with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt three years later. The former, ratified in 1713, recognised Philip as King of Spain, however, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan, the Austrian Netherlands and the Kingdom of Sardinia – all previously possessions of the Spanish—were ceded to Austria. To prevent a union of Spain and France, Philip was forced to renounce his right to succeed his grandfather's throne. Charles was extremely discontented at the loss of Spain, and as a result, he mimicked the staid Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, which, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings".
Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him. Their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy. She gave him two daughters that survived to adulthood, Maria Theresa and Maria Anna.
The Austrians, the Dutch and English allies formally declared war in May 1702. By 1708 the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy had secured victory in the Spanish Netherlands and in Italy, and had defeated Louis XIV's ally Bavaria. France faced invasion, but the unity of the allies broke first. With the Grand Alliance defeated in Spain, its casualties and costs mounting and aims diverging, the Tories came to power in Great Britain in 1710 and resolved to end the war. French and British ministers prepared the groundwork for a peace conference and in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. The Dutch, Austrians, and German states fought on to strengthen their own negotiating position, but defeated by Marshal Villars they were soon compelled to accept Anglo-French mediation. By the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) and of the Treaty of Rastatt (1714), the Spanish empire was partitioned between the major and minor powers. The Austrians received most of Spain's former European realms, but the Duke of Anjou retained peninsular Spain and Spanish America, where, after renouncing his claim to the French succession, he reigned as King Philip V. The European balance of power was assured.
From the start of the war the Dutch priority had been to secure their Barrier fortress system as stipulated – though unspecified – in the Grand Alliance treaty; they also had concerns on their eastern German border (from Cleves in the south to East Frisia in the north) where their once political and economical dominance had come under threat from the Prussians. In consequence, Spain had become largely irrelevant to the States General, and they had increasingly looked favourably on deal with France based on partition of the Spanish inheritance between Archduke Charles and the Duke of Anjou. As early as 1705 Louis XIV had approached the Allies with peace feelers, attempting to split the Dutch from the Alliance and achieve a partition of Spain. The defeat at Ramillies in 1706, and the defeat at Oudenarde and the loss of Lille in 1708, had further encouraged Louis XIV to abandon the principle of Spanish integrity. Yet for dynastic and strategic reasons Joseph I and his ministers in Vienna were unwilling to grant Philip V compensation in Italy, while Charles III in Barcelona, after years of struggle, sincerely believed in his rightful claims to the whole of Spain and its dependencies. The British supported the Habsburgs in opposing partition, in part to protect their Mediterranean trade: they were already pressing for the cessation of Minorca and the strategically important Port Mahón for themselves, and they were determined to prevent the Duke of Anjou acquiring Sicily and Naples, thereby limiting French maritime influence in the region. In desperation, therefore, Louis XIV sent the president of the Parlement of Paris, Pierre Rouillé, to meet with Dutch ministers in March 1709 at Moerdijk, confident that they at least were willing to accept some token partition. However, British and Austrian intransigence, and a whole raft of conditions from their allies, scuppered any chance of a compromise. The Dutch, unwilling to treat without British support, were compelled once again to put their faith in the strength of the Grand Alliance.
After the collapse of the talks with Rouillé on 21 April, the Allies prepared to resume hostilities, but for Louis XIV this represented an unacceptable risk. Not only was the Anglo-Dutch army fighting on French soil, the whole of France had recently suffered a severe winter, resulting in widespread crop failure and famine; a hardship exacerbated by a British naval blockade of grain imports. In early May Louis XIV sent his Foreign Minister, Torcy, to deal with the Allied negotiators at The Hague, principally Eugene, later assisted by Count Sinzendorf, for the Emperor; Marlborough and a Whig leader, Charles Townshend, representing Queen Anne; and Heinsius, Willem Buys, and Bruno van der Dussen, for the Dutch. Prussian, Savoyard, Portuguese, and German representatives were also present. The French had hoped to reduce the demands presented to Rouillé in April, but recognising Louis XIV's weakness the Allies adhered to particularly harsh conditions, and on 27 May they presented Torcy the forty articles of the Preliminaries of The Hague, the most important of which was the Anglo-Habsburg demand that required Philip V to hand over the entire Spanish Monarchy to Charles III without compensation. In return, the Allies offered a two-month truce. Within that time Louis XIV was to withdraw his troops from Spain and procure Philip V's renunciation of the Spanish throne. At largely Dutch insistence – though supported by the British – Louis XIV was to hand over three French and three Spanish 'cautionary' towns to guarantee his grandson's compliance. If Philip V refused to surrender his claims peacefully the French were to join with the Allies and forcibly drive the Bourbon claimant from the peninsula or face a renewal of the war in Flanders, though now without the towns they had surrendered. To Dutch ministers these stipulations ensured France could not reap the benefits of peace and recover its strength while the Grand Alliance continued fighting in Spain.
Louis XIV had been willing to accept the bulk of the demands, including relinquishing several fortresses to provide for the Dutch Barrier, ceding Strasbourg and many of his rights in Alsace to accommodate a Reichsbarriere on the Empire's western frontier, and recognising the Protestant succession in England, but he could not agree to the terms regarding Spain, and in early June the King publicly rejected the Preliminaries, calling on his subjects for new efforts of resistance. Nevertheless, with French forces under pressure on other fronts Louis XIV was willing to manoeuvre for peace at Philip V's expense, and after the Preliminaries had been rejected he withdrew much of his army from Spain to encourage his grandson's voluntary abdication. However, by now Louis XIV had far less influence over Philip V than the Allies realised, and surrendering Spain was not something which the Spanish King, now firmly established on his throne and enjoying the support of the majority of his subjects, would countenance.
Wounded at the Battle of Schellenberg
The allied left-wing was composed of Spanish and Dutch troops under the Count of Atalaya. The right-wing was commanded by Stanhope and was composed of British, Portuguese and Austrian troops. Starhemberg was in charge of the centre, which was mainly German, Austrian and Spanish infantry. The Allied army consisted, in all, of thirty-seven battalions and forty-three squadrons, while the Spanish-Bourbon army was composed of thirty-eight battalions and fifty-four squadrons. On 20 August at 08:00 an artillery-duel started which lasted until noon.
General Stanhope began the attack on the Bourbon-Spanish left wing. At first the Spanish and Walloon troops of the Bourbon army seemed to gain the advantage, having defeated a body of eight Portuguese squadrons, which they chased from the field. This pursuit opened a gap in the Bourbon army lines which gave Stanhope an opportunity of piercing them. The British general put to flight the disorganized Spanish soldiers, while at the centre and the right their attacks were repulsed.
But during the battle, Prince Joseph got shot and stabbed five times in stomach and legs, will perfectly crippled and effect him the rest of his life. Archduke Charles saw his brother, wounded and he run towards his wounded brother, pick him up on his horse and get back and the wounds of wounded Prince Joseph hold his wounds about fifteen days and become crippled.
Heir presumptive and relationship with his brother
After his father, Leopold I died in 1705, with his elder brother, Charles succeeded the imperial throne as Charles VI and III. Although Joseph was the heir presumptive when Joseph become the Archduke of Austria in 1707, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children. Charles give Joseph, the command of the Imperial army at aged 26, which rank is the General.
During his brother's reign, Charles continuing the war of Spanish Succession, which Joseph's supported of his brother to become the King of Spain, which ends unsuccessful under the will of Charles II of Spain.
Reign in Holy Roman Empire
Accession to the throne
His brother, Joseph I died in 1711 from illness after the smallpox epidemic of 1711. Having no legitimate children because it old enough, Charles was succeeded by his brother Joseph, who reigned in Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia as Joseph I. There was little initial opposition to his accession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession. Aged 35, he was the youngest person yet to assume the imperial throne. He condoning the war against King Louis IX of France.
During the reign of his father, Leopold I in 1684, the six-year-old Archduke had his first portrait painted by Benjamin von Block. At the age of nine, on 9 December 1687, he was crowned King of Hungary; and at the age of seventeen, on 24 March 1695, King of the Romans. Unlike many of his relatives, although a Roman Catholic, Joseph was not one for religion. The cause of this may be that he was spared a strict religious upbringing. He had two great enthusiasms: music and hunting.
Prior to his ascension, Joseph had surrounded himself with reform-hungry advisors and the ‘young court’ of Vienna was ambitious in the elaboration of innovative plans. He was described as a "forward-looking ruler". The large number of privy councillors was reduced and attempts were made to make the bureaucracy more efficient. Measures were taken to modernize the central bodies and a certain success was achieved in stabilizing the chronic Habsburg finances. Joseph also endeavoured to strengthen his position in the Holy Roman Empire – as a means of strengthening Austria’s standing as a great power. When he sought to lay claim to imperial rights in Italy and gain territories for the Habsburgs, he even risked a military conflict with the Pope over the duchy of Mantua.
In Hungary, Joseph had inherited the kuruc rebellion from his father Leopold I: once again, nobles in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) had risen against Habsburg rule, even advancing for a time as far as Vienna. Although Joseph was compelled to take military action, he refrained – unlike his predecessors – from seeking to teach his subjects a lesson by executing the leaders. Instead, he agreed to a compromise peace, which in the long term facilitated the integration of Hungary into the Habsburg domains. It was his good fortune to govern the Austrian dominions and to be head of the Empire, during the years in which his trusted general, Prince Eugene of Savoy, either acting alone in Italy or with the Duke of Marlborough in Germany and Flanders, was beating the armies of Louis XIV of France. During the whole of his reign, Hungary was disturbed by the conflict with Francis Rákóczi II, who eventually took refuge in the Ottoman Empire. The emperor reversed many of the authoritative measures of his father, thus helping to placate opponents. He began the attempts to settle the question of the Austrian inheritance by a pragmatic sanction, which was continued by his brother Charles VI.
Internal and policies
Joseph I in contrast, was far more decisive and convinced also of the need for reforms to his father. The first changes dealt with the replacement of the Cabinet. Salm was Colonel steward and de facto Prime Minister. Baron Seilern and count Sinzendorf it had to share the position of the Austrian Chancellor, while Graf Kinsky became the sole Bohemian Chancellor. The much more influential justice Chancellor was the Böhme Wratislaw.
Other significant reform was the reduction of the Privy from 150 to 33 members and the split of the secret Conference in eight smaller conferences. Seven of the conferences should deal with European Affairs, the eighth dealt with financial and military matters. Members of the conferences were mostly specialists in the respective area. The Coordinator of this new cabinet was Prince of Salm. The cabinets are dealt with: the Empire, including Scandinavia and Poland. Hungary; France, England and Holland; Spain, including Portugal; Italy; Switzerland; Turkey, including Russia. 1709 these eight conferences were converted back to a single Corporation ("major conference"). Salms resignation for health reasons (1709), Joseph I. founded a so-called "internal Conference" with Wratislaw, Seilern, Johann Leopold Donat Prince Trautson (1659-1724; Successor of Salm as Colonel Hofmeister), Eugen and Sinzendorf, in which all political matters were discussed later in the "major conference" continues to advise them.
The Catholic clergy was forced to a "voluntary gift", while the nobles were a "Contributio". Along with these means succeeded Joseph 1708 to raise the income of the Crown on 16 to 17 million. 1706 reaching the climax, which was funds driven from the Contributio: 9 million. Also from the occupied Electorate of Bavaria Funds flowed to the Emperor Bavaria and the Rhenish territories. Bavaria alone delivered 1.2 to 1.5 million. 300,000 guilders to Vienna, they had driven the Empire Knights of the upper Rhine flowed after all after the second siege of Landau. 4-5 million per year to military expenditures flowed after the occupation and conquest of Italy, after all, to Vienna. With the creation of a new City Bank owned Vienna continued to improve, because the Bank redeemed 24 million government debt during its existence.
Foreign policy with Britain and France
Since 1690s, Joseph I had successfully foreign policy with Britain and Kingdom of France. In London, King William III of England established the new relationship and foreign policy with Joseph helping William to win the war with ending King Louis XIV recognized William as King of England, Scotland and Ireland. When Joseph I succeeded the Imperial throne in 1705, Queen Anne met Joseph I to increase the relations with Holy Roman Empire and Great Britian. When Anne died in 1714, George Louis, the Elector of Hanover succeeded the English throne. The relations between King George I and Emperor Joseph made a sucedded allied with each other, which George and Joseph speak German. Emperor Joseph then visit to Paris, when he met his rival King Louis XIV in fall of 1714 at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, the relations with France and HRE had been reflowing and increase allies very fast since Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV allied with France King, Louis IX, Charles IV's father.
King of Hungary
Fifty Years' War
- Main article: Fifty Years' War
Causes of the war
The small Polish force resisted the Siege of Kamenets for two weeks but was then forced to capitulate. The Polish Army was too small to resist the Ottoman invasion and could only score some minor tactical victories. After three months, the Poles were forced to sign the Treaty of Buchach in which they agreed to surrender Kamyanets-Podilsky, Podolia and to pay tribute to the Ottoman Sultan.
When the news about the defeat and treaty terms reached Warsaw, the Sejm refused to pay the tribute and organized a large army under Jan Sobieski; subsequently, the Poles won the Battle of Khotyn (1673). After King Michael's death in 1673, Jan Sobieski was elected king of Poland; he subsequently tried to defeat the Ottomans for four years, with no success. The war ended on 17 October 1676 with the Treaty of Żurawno in which the Turks only retained control over Kamianets-Podilskyi. This Turkish attack also led in 1676 to the beginning of the Russo-Turkish Wars.
War and peace
As the war progressed, Emperor Charles VII's ally Frederick the Great becomes the King of Prussia on succeeding to the throne on 31 May 1740 upon the death of his father, and desiring the prosperous Austrian province of Silesia (which Prussia also had a minor claim to), Frederick declined to endorse the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism to ensure the inheritance of the Habsburg domains by Maria Theresa of Austria, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Thus, upon the death of Charles VI on 29 October 1740, Frederick disputed the succession of the 23-year-old Maria Theresa to the Habsburg lands, while simultaneously making his own claim on Silesia. But King Frederick nominated Elector Charles John of Bavaria. On the fall of 1740, the two leaders of the war, Emperor Charles VII John and King Philip V of Spain met in Madrid which they signed the Treaty of Madrid in fall 1740 and both Philip V and Charles VII travel to Frunkfurt which they signed the Treaty of Frankfurt in winter 1740. And the war is over.
- Main article: Silesian Wars
The First Silesian War inaugurated, and is generally seen in the context of, the wider ranging War of the Austrian Succession. It owed its origins to the Pragmatic Sanction of 19 April 1713 whereby the Habsburg emperor Charles VI decreed the imperial succession arrangements as set out in his will, according precedence to his own daughters over the daughters of his (by now deceased) elder brother Joseph I. This proved prescient: in May 1717 the emperor’s own eldest daughter was born and on his death in 1740, she duly succeeded as Archduchess of Austria as well as to the thrones of the Bohemian and Hungarian lands within the Habsburg Monarchy as Queen Maria Theresa.
During the emperor’s lifetime the Pragmatic Sanction was generally acknowledged by the imperial states but when he died it was promptly contested both by the Hohenzollern scion Frederick II, who had just ascended the Prussian throne, and by the Wittelsbach elector Charles Albert of Bavaria. While Charles launched a claim to the imperial throne and the Habsburg territories, King Frederick II aimed at the annexation of Silesia, a Bohemian crown land since 1335.
Frederick based his demands on a 1537 inheritance treaty of the Silesian duke Frederick II of Legnica with the Hohenzollern elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, whereby the Silesian duchies of Legnica, Wołów and Brzeg were to pass to the Electorate of Brandenburg on the extinction of the Silesian Piasts. The Bohemian king Ferdinand of Habsburg, aware of the Hohenzollern ambitions, had immediately rejected the agreement; nevertheless in 1675 the "Great Elector" Frederick William of Brandenburg raised claim to the principalities, when with the death of Duke George William of Legnica the Piast line finally had died out. At that time no attempt had been made to implement these old treaty provisions, and when in the course of the 1685 Edict of Potsdam the Elector entered into an alliance with the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, he was persuaded to renounce his claims in return for the assignment of the Silesian Świebodzin (Schwiebus) exclave and a payment. However, after the accession of Frederick William's son and successor Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg, the emperor in 1695 enforced the restitution of Świebodzin, which allegedly only had been personally assigned to late Frederick William for life. Furious Frederick III in turn again insisted on the centuries-old Brandenburg claims to the Silesian Piast heritage. }}
Abdications and later life
Joseph abdicated the parts of his empire piecemeal. First he abdicated the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia, both fiefs of the Papacy, and the Duchy of Milan to his son-in-law, Polish King Augustus III in 1732. Upon Joseph's abdication of Croatia on 25 July, Augustus was invested with the kingdom (officially "Hungary and Bohemia") on 2 October by Pope Julius III. The abdication of the throne of Duchy of Teschen, sometimes dated to 16 January 1734. The most famous—and public—abdication of Joesph took place a year later, on 25 October 1735, when he announced to the States General of the Netherlands his abdication of those territories and the county of Charolais and his intention to retire to a monastery. In April 1736, he abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor in favor of his brother Charles, which Charles elect-King of the Romans in 1735. Although the abdication was accepted by the Electors of the Empire when the Imperial election in 1736. The delay had been at Joesph's request who had been concerned about holding a risky election in 1843.
During his military career, Joseph was wounded five times in stomach and legs by gunshot and swords at the Battle of Schellenberg in 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession. The Archduke Joseph Karl was move the way from the battle, as he suffered limping in his legs during his was become Emperor in 1705. Although Joseph recovered a few weeks but his health falls again in fall of 1742.
Illness and death
The infection of his wounds at the battle of Schellenberg in 1704, becomes even worsen in 1741, which cause the pains in his stomach and his thick thighs and legs, which is Contraction tremors during the rest of his reign. While his elder brother become the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI visit his dying Kaiser Joesph I on 27 February 1742.
Joesph I's health was declining in the fall of 1743. With his brother Charles won the Imperial throne in 1740, Charles had accepted that he will start his imperial throne until his brother, Joseph I was died, because he said that he will care of his younger brother. The shaking in his legs had been stopped but his illness was more declined. After nine years after his retirement, Kaiser Joseph I died on 9 September 1745, aged 67 in Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria after dyning of pneumonia, caused by his wounds during the War of the Spanish Succession. He had previously promised his wife to stop having affairs, should he survive. He was the first Emperor who favorite abdicated his territories since Kaiser Charles V in his abdication series from 1554-56.
The Emperor was buried with great fast in the Imperial Crypt, resting place of the majority of Habsburgs. His funeral took place of 20 April that same year. He is buried in tomb no. 35 in Karl's Vault. His tomb was designed by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt and it is decorated with pictures of various battles from the War of Spanish Succession. Josefstadt (the eighth district of Vienna) is named for him.
Death and legacy
At the time of Charles' death, the Habsburg lands were saturated in debt; the exchequer contained a mere 100,000 florins; and desertion was rife in Austria's sporadic army, spread across the Empire in small, ineffective barracks. Contemporaries expected that Austria-Hungary would wrench itself from the Habsburg yoke upon his death.
The Emperor, after a hunting trip across the Hungarian border in "a typical day in the wettest and coldest October in memory", fell seriously ill at the Favorita Palace, Vienna, and he died on 20 October 1736 in the Hofburg. In his Memoirs Voltaire wrote that Charles' death was caused by consuming a meal of death cap mushrooms. Charles' life opus, the Pragmatic Sanction, was ultimately in vain. Maria Theresa was forced to resort to arms to defend her inheritance from the coalition of Prussia, Bavaria, France, Spain, Saxony and Poland—all party to the sanction—who assaulted the Austrian frontier weeks after her father's death. During the ensuing War of the Austrian Succession, Maria Theresa saved her crown and most of her territory but lost the mineral-rich Duchy of Silesia to Prussia and the Duchy of Parma to Spain.
Emperor Charles VI has been the main motif of many collectors' coins and medals. One of the most recent samples is high value collectors' coin the Austrian Göttweig Abbey commemorative coin, minted on 11 October 2006. His portrait can be seen in the foreground of the reverse of the coin.
| Leopold Johann||100px||13 April 1716 –|
4 November 1716
|Archduke of Austria, died aged seven months.|
| Maria Theresa||100px|| 13 May 1717 –|
29 November 1780
|Archduchess of Austria and heiress of the Habsburg dynasty, married Francis III Stephen, Duke of Lorraine (later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor).|
| Maria Anna||100px|| 14 September 1718 –|
16 December 1744
|Archduchess of Austria, married Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, with whom she served as Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Died in childbirth.|
| Maria Amalia||100px|| 5 April 1724 –|
19 April 1730
|Archduchess of Austria, died aged six.|
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 1 October 1685 – 12 October 1711 His Royal Highness The Archduke Charles of Austria
- 1 November 1700 – 12 October 1711 His Majesty The King of Spain
- 12 October 1711 – 20 October 1740 His Imperial Majesty The Holy Roman Emperor
Full titles of Charles as the emperor and ruler of Habsburg lands as well as a pretender to the Spanish throne went as follows: Charles, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Castile, Aragon, Leon, both Sicilies, Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galitia, Lodomeria, Cumania, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the islands of India and Mainland of the Ocean sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Milan, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxemburg, Gelderland, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Calabria, Athens and Neopatria, Prince of Swabia, Catalonia, Asturia, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, Moravia, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Artois, Landgrave of Alsace, Margrave of Oristano, Count of Goceano, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molina, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen, etc.
|Heraldry of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor|
Duke of Teschen 1711–1722 King of Naples 1707–1735 King of Sardinia 1708–1735 King of Hungary 1711–1736 King of Croatia 1711–1736 King of Bohemia 1711–1736 Archduke of Austria 1711–1736 Holy Roman Emperor 1711–1736 King of Germany 1711–1736 Duke of Luxembourg 1714–1736 Count of Namur 1714–1736 Duke of Brabant 1714–1736 Duke of Limburg 1714–1736 Duke of Lothier 1714–1736 Duke of Milan 1714–1736 Count of Flanders 1714–1736 Count of Hainaut 1714–1736 King of Sicily 1720–1735 Duke of Parma and Piacenza 1735–1736 Duke of Guastalla 1735–1736
- ↑ "MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwryrD10.
- ↑ Crankshaw, Edward, Maria Theresa, 1969, Longman publishers, Great Britain (pre-dates ISBN), 24.
- ↑ Jones, Colin: "The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon", University of Columbia Press, Great Britain, 2002, ISBN 0-231-12882-7, 89.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Crankshaw, 37.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Pragmatic Sanction of Emperor Charles VI, Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 15 October 2009.
- ↑ "Joseph I, Luminarium.org. Excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Ed. 1910 Vol XV. p 141". http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/charles14.htm.
- ↑ "Joseph I as Roman-German Emperor, oval portrait with motto". The World of the Habsburgs. english.habsburger.net. http://english.habsburger.net/module-en/reformeifer-im-barock-joseph-i/reformeifer-im-barock-joseph-i/MB-ST_D12-MOD4-01.jpg/?size=preview&plus=1. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- ↑ Fraser, 312.
- ↑ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Charles VI (Holy Roman emperor)". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/107109/Charles-VI. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- ↑ Fraser, Antonia: Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of The Sun King, Orion books, London, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2293-7, 331.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Crankshaw, 9.
- ↑ Crankshaw, 10–11.
- ↑ Israel: The Dutch Republic, 970, 974
- ↑ Ingrao: In Quest, 165–78, 197; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 446–51; Burton: Marlborough, 142; Wolf: Louis XIV, 559
- ↑ Ingrao: In quest, 178–81; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 325–6; Trevelyan: England, II, 399
- ↑ Ingrao: In Quest, 182; Pitt: The Pacification of Utrecht, 452–3; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 325–6
- ↑ Hussey and Bromley: The Spanish Empire under Foreign Pressures, 374; Lynn: Wars of Louis XIV, 326; Kamen: Philip V, 70–2;
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Stanhope, p. 308
- ↑ Stanhope, p. 310
- ↑ Stanhope, p. 311
- ↑ Callon, 210
- ↑ Miller, 120–121
- ↑ Johnson, 109
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 "Reforming zeal in the Baroque: Joseph I". The World of the Habsburgs. english.habsburger.net. http://english.habsburger.net/module-en/reformeifer-im-barock-joseph-i. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- ↑ Asprey 1986, p. 141.
- ↑ Asprey 1986, p. 154.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Joachim Whaley (2012). Germany and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume I: Maximilian I to the Peace of Westphalia, 1493-1648. OUP Oxford. p. 343. Template:Citation/identifier. https://books.google.com/books?id=QXdPzWXCphkC&pg=PA343. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Crankshaw, 33.
- ↑ Edward Crankshaw: Maria Theresa, A&C Black, 2011. And also: «[...] after a day of hunting, the emperor fell ill with a cold and fever. Upon his return to his hunting lodge, Charles requested his cook to prepare him his favorite dish of mushrooms. Soon after eating them, he fell violently ill. His physicians bled him but to no avail» (Julia P. Gelardi: In Triumph's Wake: Royal Mothers, Tragic Daughters, and the Price They Paid for Glory, Macmillan, 2009).
- ↑ In the first days of October 1740, in a cold day of pouring rain Emperor Charles VI, «in spite of the warnings of his physicians» (Eliakim Littell, Robert S. Littell: Littell's Living Age, Volume 183, T.H. Carter & Company, 1889, pg. 69), went to hunting ducks on the shores of Lake Neusiedl, close to the Hungarian border and he had come back chilled and soaked through to his little country palace at La Favorita; on his return, though he was feverish and suffering from colic, the Emperor persisted in eating one of his favourite dishes, a Catalan mushroom stew («a large dish of fried mushrooms» for the Littell brothers), prepared by his cook. He spent the night between 10 and 11 October vomiting. The following morning he was gravely ill, brought down by a high fever. Carried slowly to Vienna in a padded carriage, he died in the Hofburg nine days after.
- ↑ «Charles the Sixth died, in the month of October, 1740, of an indigestion, occasioned by eating champignons, which brought on an apoplexy, and this plate of champignons changed the destiny of Europe» (Voltaire: Memoirs of the Life of Voltaire, 1784; pp. 48–49).
- ↑ Wasson RG. (1972). The death of Claudius, or mushrooms for murderers. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 23(3):101–128.
- ↑ Browning, Reed: The War of the Austrian Succession, Palgrave Macmillan, 1995, ISBN 0-312-12561-5, 362.
- Crankshaw, Edward: Maria Theresa, 1969, Longman publishers, Great Britain (pre-dates ISBN)
- Jones, Colin: The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon, University of Columbia Press, Great Britain, 2002, ISBN 0-231-12882-7
- Fraser, Antonia: Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of The Sun King, Orion books, London, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2293-7
- Mahan, J.Alexander: Maria Theresa of Austria, Crowell publishers, New York, 1932 (pre-dates ISBN)
- Kahn, Robert A.: A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526–1918, University of California Press, California, 1992, ISBN 978-0-520-04206-3
- Acton, Harold: The Last Medici, Macmillan, London, 1980, ISBN 0-333-29315-0
- Browning, Reed: The War of the Austrian Succession, Palgrave Macmillan, 1995, ISBN 0-312-12561-5