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"Carl Johan" and "Charles I" redirect here. For other uses, see Carl Johan (disambiguation) and Charles I (disambiguation).''
This article is about 19th century Swedish monarch nicknamed the Elector King. For 17th century monarch nicknamed the Great Elector, see Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.''
Charles XIV & III John
Johann P. Gustafsson - King Charles XIV John 1818-1844.jpg
King Charles XIV/III John; by Johann P. Gustafsson, 1832.
King of Sweden and Norway
Reign 5 February 1818 – 8 March 1844[1]
Coronation 11 May 1818 (Sweden)
7 September 1818 (Norway)
Predecessor Charles XIII/II
Successor Oscar I
Prime Minister Magnus Björnstjerna
Prince of Pontecorvo
Reign 5 June 1806 – 21 August 1810
Predecessor Principality established
Successor Lucien Murat
Born Jean Bernadotte
26 January 1763(1763-01-26)
19 February 1763 (N.S.)
Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France
Died 8 March 1844 (aged 81)
20 April 1844 (N.S.)
Rosendal Palace, Djurgården, Sweden
Burial
Spouse Désirée Clary
(m. 1798–1844, his death)
Issue
more...
Full name
Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte
House Bernadotte
Father Henri Bernadotte
Mother Jeanne de Saint-Jean
Religion Lutheranism
prev. Roman Catholicism
Signature Charles XIV & III John's signature
Military career
Allegiance  Kingdom of France
Flag of France (1790–1794).svg Kingdom of France
France French Republic
France French Empire
Years of service 1780–1810
Rank Marshal of the Empire
Commands held Governor of Hanover
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Awards Legion of Honour
Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe
Titled Prince of Ponte-Corvo
Other work Minister of War
Councillor of State

Charles XIV & III John, also known as Carl John, (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844[1]) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 5 February 1818 until his death, also served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. Baron Carl Otto Mörner (22 May 1781 – 17 August 1868), a Swedish courtier and obscure member of the Riksdag of the Estates, advocated for the succession.[2]

The third son of Maximilian I, younger brother to James Casimir I and nephew and successor of Stanislaus August II. 

Charles was in 5th Hussars Cavalry in his youth and was, both during his reign and afterwards, known as the "Popular Monarch" or the "Elector King".[3][4] He did not use Bernadotte in Sweden but founded the royal dynasty there by that name. Charles was the son of Maximilian I, Elector of Radziłów and Maria Elizabeth of Lodz, and a great-great-grandson of Christian V John of Denmark (through both his parents), uniquely positioning him to eventually accede to all three thrones. In 1818, he succeeded the last Holstein-Gottorp monarch, Charles XIII, who died without issue.[5] His was elected the heir-presumptive to the Swedish throne because the Swedish royal family was dying out with King Charles XIII.

During his reign, He increasingly accommodating attitude made him more popular. He allied himself to his older brother on 1824, which Sweden-Norway entered alliance with Poland and declared war on Ukrainian in 1825. He outlawed conflict culminated with the Battle of the Square (torvslaget) in Christiania on 17 May 1829, in a joint meeting of the Swedish and Norwegian cabinets on 30 January 1839, a Union committee with 4 members from each country was appointed to solve contested questions between them. When the Storting of 1839 convened in his presence, he was received with great affection by the politicians and the public. He was role of the War of the Ukrainian Succession by the death of Ivan VI in 1836. His visits Lithuania in 1819, 1823, 1842, and again from 1844. During the beginning of his reign, the power was held by Count Magnus Björnstjerna, now recognised as Swedish-Norwegians' first de facto prime minister.

In 1843, by end of fall, King Charles John suffering a illness, after recovering a month later. During the last months of his reign, Prime Minister Björnstjerna controlled the government as Oscar's controlled the kingdom as Regent. As well the death of his cousin, King William I who reign the Dutch throne from 1815 to his Charles John survived the abdication controversy and he went on to have his silver jubilee which was celebrated with great enthusiasm on 18 February 1843. On his 81st birthday on 26 January 1844, he suffered a stroke after was found unconscious in his chambers, but later recovered from regained consciousness. He never fully recovered and died on the afternoon of 8 March at age of 81. He was succeeded by his son, Oscar. His remains were interred after a state funeral in Stockholm's Riddarholm Church.

Early life and family

File:Young Duke Jean-Baptiste d'Radzilow in 1780.jpg

Young Duke Jean-Baptiste d'Radzilow in 1780. (later Charles XIV and I)

Jean-Baptiste was born in early hours on 26 January 1763 at Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques and as the younger son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Jean-Baptiste of Radzilow" on 17 December 1768 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle. His godparents were John II Casimir Vasa (represented by John, Count of Lodz), Henry III of France. [6] Maria refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was then the custom.[7] The English guests were offended by the subsequent entertainment, which was devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez and depicted them as satyrs with tails.[8] Radzilowski himself added Jules to his first names later,[9]

from Julius Caesar, in the classicizing spirit of the French Revolution.[citation needed]

For the first year of his life, Charles was the only heir to the Polish-Lithuanian territories of his father and three childless uncles. In 1766, Charles's older brother James Casimir was born a year ago, were brought up together. Their mother was absent for almost a year (1664–65) during a long convalescent holiday in Italy, but she corresponded regularly with her sons' governess and took a great interest in her sons' upbringing, even more so on her return.[10] After Sophia's tour she bore Ernest Augustus another four sons and a daughter. In her letters, Sophia describes George as a responsible, conscientious child who set an example to his younger brothers and sisters.[11]

By 1764, Jean-Baptiste's uncle Stanislaus August II, succeeded to the Polish-Lithuanian throne after Augustus III died in 1763, but his remaining two uncles had married, putting Charles's inheritance in jeopardy as his uncles' estates might pass to their own sons, should they have had any, instead of to Charles. Jean-Baptiste's father took him hunting and riding, and introduced him to military matters; mindful of his uncertain future, Ernest Augustus took the fifteen-year-old George on campaign in the Franco-Dutch War with the deliberate purpose of testing and training his son in battle.[12]

Jean-Baptiste's father, Maximilian, was Duke and Heir to the Polish throne on 10 February 1787 at Warsaw, Poland, to Maximilian's brother, Stanisław II August who becoming Latvia-Belarus, with his capital at Lithuania. Jean-Baptiste' surviving cousin, Józef Poniatowski, had married his mistress in order to legitimise his only daughter, Sophia Dorothea of Celle, but looked unlikely to have any further children. Under Salic Law, where inheritance of territory was restricted to the male line, the succession of Jean-Baptiste and his brothers to the territories of their father and uncle now seemed secure. In 1792, the family agreed to adopt the principle of primogeniture, meaning Charles would inherit all the territory and not have to share it with his brothers.[13]

Education

Jean-Baptiste was tutored by the Countess de Genlis, beginning of 1776, same as his second cousin, Louis-Philippe in 6 years later. He instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; it is probably during this period that Louis Philippe picked up his slightly Voltairean[needs to be explained] brand of Catholicism. When Jean-Baptiste's grandfather died in 1780, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. Jean-Baptiste meet his cousin, Louis-Philippe.

In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Jean-Baptiste and Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais-Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries.

Marriage

Désirée Clary met Charles John on his returned after the Battle of Waterloo.

The same year, Charles married Désirée Clary, thereby securing additional incomes that would have been outside Salic laws requiring male inheritance. The marriage of state was arranged primarily as it ensured a healthy annual income and assisted the eventual unification of Lithuania and Celle. His mother was at first against the marriage because she looked down on Sophia Dorothea's mother (who was not of royal birth), and because she was concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status. Lithuania, she was eventually won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage.[14]

In 1790, Charles and his brother, James Casimir, served in the French Revolutionary Wars at Battle of Valmy and Désirée Clary bore a son, Frederick Radzilow. The following yearFrederick Augustus was informed of the adoption of primogeniture, meaning he would no longer receive part of his father's territory as he had expected. It led to a breach between father and son, and between the brothers, that lasted until Frederick Augustus's death in battle in 1690. With the imminent formation of a single Hanoverian state, and the Hanoverians' continuing contributions to the Empire's wars, Ernest Augustus was made an Elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. George's prospects were now better than ever as the sole heir to his father's electorate and his uncle's duchy.[15] Désirée Clary had a second child William Frederick on the same year. The couple became estranged—George preferred the company of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, by whom he had two daughters in 1692 and 1693;[16] and Sophia Dorothea, meanwhile, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck. Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694 the Swedish count was killed, possibly with the connivance of George, and his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones. The murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom (Don Nicolò Montalbano) was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, which was about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest paid minister.[17] Later rumours supposed that Königsmarck was hacked to pieces and buried beneath the Hanover palace floorboards.[18] However, sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts.[17]

Charles's marriage to Désirée Clary have been increase and loyalty. But the couple had a still born, Princess Françoise of Orleans but died at age 1 in 1794. Two years later, Clary and Charles have another child, Jean-Baptiste Radziłówski, who was Illegitimate (now a son of Charles and Clary). The relations with Jean-Baptiste and his parents are loyal, but his behavior was kinda okay. Three years later, Charles and Clary have another child, Joseph François, after Charles become Elector of Lithuania, a year ago.

Military career

Bernadotte joined the army as a private in the Régiment de Royal-Marine on 3 September 1780,[19] and first served in the newly conquered territory of Corsica.[9]

Subsequently, the Régiment stationed in Besancon, Grenoble, Vienne, Marseille and Ile de Re etc.[20][21] He reached to the rank of Sergeant in August 1785 and was nicknamed Sergeant Belle-Jambe, for his smart appearance.[22] In early 1790 he was promoted to Adjutant-Major, the highest rank for noncommissioned officers in the Ancien Régime.[23]

During Revolutionary Wars

Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion.[9]

He was promoted by 1794 brigadier, attached to the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse.[9]
After Jourdan's victory at Fleurus (26 June 1794) he became a general of division. At the Battle of Theiningen (1796), Bernadotte contributed, more than anyone else, to the successful retreat of the French army over the Rhine after its defeat by the Archduke Charles of Austria.

At the beginning of 1797 he was ordered by the directory to march with 20,000 men as reinforcements to Napoleon Bonaparte's army in Italy.[24]

His successful crossing of the Alps through the storm in midwinter was highly praised but he was coldly received by the Italian Army.[25][26] Upon receiving insult by Dominique Martin Dupuy, the commander of Milan, Bernadotte was to arrest him for insubordination.[27] However, unfortunately for him, Dupuy was a close friend of Louis-Alexandre Berthier and this trouble made a beginning of the long-lasting feud between Bernadotte and the General-in-Chief of Napoleon.[28]

He had the first interview with Napoleon in Mantua and was appointed the commander of the 4th division.[29] During the invasion of Friuli and Istria Bernadotte distinguished himself greatly at the passage of the Tagliamento where he led the vanguard, and at the capture of the fortress of Gradisca (19 March 1797). [24]

After the 18th Fructidor, Napoleon ordered his generals to collect from their respective divisions addresses in favor of the coup d'état of that day; but Bernadotte sent an address to the directory different from that which Napoleon wished for and without conveying it through Napoleon's hands. [24]


After the treaty of Campo Formio Napoleon made Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but immediately after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, and commanded him to march the other half back to France.[24]

Paul Barras, one of five directors, was cautious that Napoleon would overturn the Republic, hence he appointed Bernadotte commander-in-chief of the Italian Army in order to offset Napoleon’s power.[30] Bernadotte was pleased with this appointment but Napoleon lobbied Talleyrand-Perigord, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to appoint him the embassy to Vienna instead.[31] Bernadotte was much dissatisfied, but finally accepted the embassy to Vienna but had to quit his post owing to the disturbances caused by his hoisting the tricolour over the embassy.[9] [24]


After returning from Vienna, he resided in Paris. He married in August, 1798, Désirée Clary, the daughter of a Marseilles merchant and Joseph Bonaparte's sister-in-law.[24]

In November of the same year he was made commander of the army of observation on the upper Rhine. Although solicited to do so by Barras and Joseph Bonaparte, he did not take part in the coup d'état of the 30th Prairial.[32]

From 2 July to 14 September he was Minister of War, in which capacity he displayed great ability. [24]

However, his popularity and contacts with radical Jacobins aroused antipathy towards him in the government.[33] On the morning of September 13 he found his resignation announced in the Moniteur before he was aware that he had tendered it. This was a trick; played upon him by Sieyès and Roger Ducos, the directors allied to Napoleon. [24]


He declined to help Napoleon Bonaparte stage his coup d'état of November 1799, but nevertheless accepted employment from the Consulate, and from April 1800 to 18 August 1801 commanded the army in the Vendée and successfully restored its tranquility.[9] [24]


Conspiracy of Rennes/Plot of Placards & the Governor of Louisiana

Template:Refimprove section Bernadotte was one of the worst malcontents in the French general staff, and this was well known to Napoleon. In the early summer of 1802, Bernadotte's chief-of-staff was caught leading a conspiracy to whip up a revolt among the large numbers of troops that were being concentrated in Rennes, Brittany. These conscripts were soon to be dispatched to the West Indies, where it was well known that most Europeans were dying from Yellow Fever. Though the plot was uncovered before much more had been achieved than the distribution of seditious handbills and placards, it had still been frightening enough for Napoleon; he initially threatened to have Bernadotte shot, but he wisely backed away after Joseph Bonaparte, Bernadotte's brother-in-law, successfully convinced his younger brother that there was no evidence directly linking Bernadotte with the conspiracy. Nevertheless, Bernadotte remained persona non grata at the Consulate and kept a low profile by residing in Plombières-les-Bains.

In September 1802, Napoleon considered who would make a suitable governor for the retrocession of Louisiana, effective on 15 October 1802. Bernadotte seemed to be the perfect candidate for this virtual exile; he accepted, and he and his family made preparations to depart from La Rochelle. On the day of Bernadotte's scheduled departure, April 12, 1803, James Monroe arrived in Paris to close the deal on the Louisiana Purchase. When Bernadotte's party arrived in La Rochelle, confusion ensued for many days as the ship charted to take them to Louisiana was counter-ordered to carry General Jean Augustin Ernouf to his appointment of governor general of the French colony in Saint-Domingue and Guadeloupe following the suppression of a sudden widespread slave insurrection. A second possible ship was recalled to convey supplies to the army in Saint Domingue. While organizing a third vessel to take him to Louisiana, Parisian newspapers had reached Bernadotte announcing the surprise conclusion of the Louisiana Purchase. Bernadotte was waiting in La Rochelle for clarification from the Consulate on May 16, when Britain declared war on France. On May 27, Bernadotte sent a letter to Napoleon through Joseph resigning his Louisianan appointment and asking for an army for the impending War of the Third Coalition. Under pressure from Joseph, Napoleon acquiesced, but still did not send orders to Bernadotte for over a year.[34][page needed]

Marshal of the French Empire

File:Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte.jpg

Bernadotte, as Marshal of the French Empire.

On the introduction of the First French Empire, Bernadotte became one of the eighteen Marshals of the Empire and, from June 1804 to September 1805, served as governor of the recently occupied Hanover. In this capacity, as well as during his later command of the army of northern Germany, he created for himself a reputation for independence, moderation, and administrative ability.[24]


During the campaign of 1805, Bernadotte with an army corps from Hanover, co-operated in the great movement which resulted in the shutting off of Mack in Ulm. In the Austerlitz (2 December 1805) he was posted with his corps in the center between Soult and Lannes, and contributed to baffle the attempt of the right wing of the allies to outflank the French army. [24]

As a reward for his services at Battle of Austerlitz, he became the 1st Sovereign Prince of Ponte Corvo (5 June 1806), a district of Naples formerly subject to the pope. [35]

[24]


However, during the campaign against Prussia, in the same year, he was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstädt, though close at hand.[35]

After the Battle of Jena, Bernadotte defeated the Prussians at Halle(17 October 1806) but the headquarter did not much appreciate this victory.[36] When visiting Halle after the battle, Napoleon enigmatically commented “Bernadotte stops at nothing. Someday the Gascon will get caught.”[37] Subsequently, Bernadotte pursued conjointly with Soult and Murat the Prussian general Blücher to Lübeck, and aided in forcing his capitulation at Radkow (7 November 1806). [24]
When the French forced their way to Lübeck, the city became the target of large-scale looting and rampage by the French soldiers. Bernadotte, struggling desperately to prevent his men from sacking, was given six horses from the Council of Lübeck as their appreciation.[38][39] He also treated captured Swedish soldiers with courtesy and allowed their return to home country. The impressed Swedes carried back home with a tale of Bernadotte’s fairness in maintaining order within the city.[40]

Thereafter he marched to Poland and defeated the Russians at Mohrungen (25 January 1807).[24]

Since the messenger had been captured by Russians, Bernadotte could not take part in Battle of Eylau (7 to 8 February 1807). Napoleon rebuked him for his absence but it became acknowledged that it was not due to Bernadotte but Berthier’s carelessness in dispatching orderly.[41]

After the peace of Tilsit, in 1808, as governor of the Hanseatic towns, he was to have directed the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to naught because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent. [9]


Being recalled to Germany to assist in the new war between France and Austria, he received the command of the 9th corps, which was mainly composed of Saxons.[24]

At the Battle of Wagram (6 July 1809), he commanded this corps, of which the division of Dupas formed part. Having resisted on the left wing for a long time an attack from a superior force, he ordered Dupas forward to his support; the latter replied that he had orders from the emperor to remain where he was. After the battle Bernadotte complained to Napoleon for having in violation of all military rules ordered Dupas to act independently of his command, and for having thereby caused great loss of life to the Saxons, and tendered his resignation; and Napoleon accepted it after he had become aware of an order of the day issued by Bernadotte in which he gave the Saxons credit for their courage in terms inconsistent with the emperor's official bulletin. [24]


Bernadotte having returned to Paris, the Walcheren expedition (July, 1809), caused the French ministry in the absence of the emperor to entrust him with the defense of Antwerp with the National Guard.[42] In a proclamation issued to his troops at Antwerp he made a charge against Napoleon of having neglected to prepare the proper means of defense for the Belgian coast. He was deprived of his command of the National Guard, and ordered on his return to Paris to leave it for Catalonia to take command of the Army there.[43][44] Refusing to comply with the order, he was summoned to Vienna, and after an interview with Napoleon at Schönbrunn accepted the general government of the Roman states. [24]


Offer of the Swedish Throne

Statue in Norrköping erected in 1846.

In 1810, he was about to enter upon his new post as governor of Rome when he was unexpectedly elected the heir-presumptive to King Charles XIII of Sweden.[35]

The problem of Charles' successor had been acute almost from the time he had ascended the throne a year earlier, as it was apparent that the Swedish branch of the House of Holstein-Gottorp would die with him. He was 61 years old and in failing health. He was also childless; Queen Charlotte had given birth to two children who had died in infancy, and there was no prospect of her bearing another child. The king had adopted a Danish prince, Charles August, as his son soon after his coronation, but he had died just a few months after his arrival.[45]

Bernadotte was elected partly because a large part of the Swedish Army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because he was also personally popular, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners in Lübeck.[46] The matter was decided by one of the Swedish courtiers, Baron Karl Otto Mörner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte. Bernadotte communicated Mörner's offer to Napoleon, who treated the whole affair as an absurdity. The Emperor did not support Bernadotte but did not oppose him either and so Bernadotte informed Mörner that he would not refuse the honour if he were elected. Although the Swedish government, amazed at Mörner's effrontery, at once placed him under arrest on his return to Sweden, the candidature of Bernadotte gradually gained favour and on 21 August 1810[35]

he was elected by the Riksdag of the Estates to be the new Crown Prince,[35]
and was subsequently made Generalissimus of the Swedish Armed Forces by the King.[47][page needed]

Before freeing Bernadotte from his allegiance to France, Napoleon asked him to agree never to take up arms against France. Bernadotte having refused to make any such agreement, upon the ground that his obligations to Sweden would not allow it, Napoleon exclaimed “Go, and let our destinies be accomplished” and signed the act of emancipation unconditionally.[48]

Crown Prince, Heir presumptive and Regent

Charles XIV and III John on Horseback as Crown Prince of Sweden in 1810. Painted by Fredric Westin.

In 1809 did the Swedish officers rebellion against King Gustav IV Adolf defeat by Russia in Finnish War and the loss of Finland. [49] The deposed king's childless uncle, Karl XIII, was elected new Swedish king, and Swedish foreign policy was diametrically changed. From being opponents of France under Napoléon was goal friendly relations with Europe domineering ruler and power. [50] Tron consequence was secured in 1810 by the king adopted a Danish prince, Christian August of Augustenborg. [51] Christian August took the name Carl August as Swedish crown prince, but died suddenly in May 1810, the same year that he came to Sweden as heir to the throne.[51]

Due Karl Johans lack of knowledge in Swedish, it was shortly after his arrival in Sweden created a separate organization that existed in his entire lifetime, termed enskilda agency (konung enskilda agency).[52] In addition to a comprehensive translation of business documents between French and Swedish drifted Karl Johan through enskilda agency, but also through other channels, a broad-based work to influence public opinion both domestically and abroad, particularly in France.[53]

Karl Johans youth friend Louis Marie De Camps was after arrival to Sweden among the key officials in enskilda agency. Because of irregular conduct he became more peripheral, and the Norwegian-born officer Johan Hübner von Holst was central to Karl Johans adjutant and secretary. [52] Enskilda agency kept contact with and coordinated Karl Johans contacts in the press and among publishers, like Carl August Grevesmöhlen, Per Adam Wall Mark and in France in particular Joseph Izarn. [52]

Christian Augusts' death created a difficult situation, and the general Georg Adlersparre feared that the so-called gustavianerne would gather around the deposed king's son, prince Gustav, as the new crown prince.[54] Adler Sparre Council Karl XIII and the Council of State to urgently provide throne to the deceased's elder brother, Duke Fredrik Kristian II of Holstein-Augustenburg and to get the French emperor Napoléon approval. It was sent to cures is to France, one was Freiherr and Lieutenant Carl Otto Mörner. Mörner sympathized with a group considered that a prominent Frenchman could lift Sweden out of decay and lead a revenge war against Russia.[54][55]

Mörner arrived Paris June 20, 1810. [56] After courier message was delivered, he began working for his own proposals. [56] A French friend helped him to make contact with Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, and they met at the home of Bernadotte on June 25, 1810. [56] Opposite Bernadotte claimed Mörner that he spoke for many Swedes when he asked about the French marshal would be Swedish crown prince. < ref name = AlanPalmer200-205 /> Bernadotte was reserved but did not dismiss the offer. Mörner met then general Fabian Wrede, who was in Paris, [56] and managed to win his support for the proposal.

The day after the pillow Wrede a visit with Bernadotte, who then showed a clear interest in the idea and estimated that Napoléon would not oppose it. [56] With this response, and a letter in which General Wrede praising Bernadotte, left Mörner Paris. After returning to Stockholm on 12 July sought Mörner Secretary Lars von Engeström and hovkanslern, Minister Gustaf af Wetterstedt, as "to his astonishment" were informed about the proposal for the new crown prince. Sweden Minister in Paris, Freiherr Gustaf Lagerbielke, received only after the mornig departure knowledge about Morne willful action. [56]

The couple Bernadotte left Paris on June 26 for a three-week spa stay in Plombières-les-Bains. Before departing sent Bernadotte a letter to Napoléon on the Swedish offer. [56] The emperor was surprised, partly he had not heard anything else from the Swedish ambassador than that Sweden wanted the Duke of Augustenborg, and partly he meant that other French marshals were more appropriate, like Eugène de Beauharnais, but he refused. [56] During the weeks at the spa was Bernadotte kept well informed about the situation in Sweden by express courier, a help he got from grateful merchants in Hamburg. [57]

On July 21, was Bernadotte back in Paris. It was not yet clear who would get the Swedish throne, and he realized that he needed a supporter. He therefore contacted a French merchant, Jean Antoine Fournier, who had lived sixteen years in Sweden.[57] Fournier was commissioned to travel to Sweden as Bernadotte's spokesman, equipped with medallions with portraits of the couple Bernadotte and son He was further instructed to name Bernadottes fortune.[57] The campaign for Bernadotte in Sweden became a kind of party. Napoléon awaited by saying who he wanted as Swedish successor to the Throne, and it helped to keep more options open.[56]

Due to the uncertain situation in Stockholm after lynching of Axel von Fersen was the Reichstag opened in Örebro on July 30, 1810. [56] The Swedish government held after hesitating its first proposal. In stud the hemliga utskottet were already on August 8, 11 of 12 representatives of the Duke of Augustenborg, only Fabian Wrede were opposed.[57] [58] Fournier arriving at Orebro and his work for Bernadotte's candidacy got however many of parliamentary men to change perception.[57] At Napoléon recalled its charge d'affaires in Stockholm, Désaugiers, who had supported Frederik VI, indicated for the Swedes that Napoléon would hardly be dissatisfied with the election of Jean Baptiste Bernadotte as Swedish heir to the throne. [57] An important factor was also Bernadotte's extensive experience as a manager, which the Duke of Augustenborg missing. Although absolutism was abolished in Sweden by the constitution of 1809, the state was still characterized by a strong monarchy, a role that the weakened Karl XIII could not fill.[59]

It hemliga utskottet held on 16 August 1810 a new voting, who with 10 against 2 votes approved the choice of the French marshal.[60] On 21 August, he stone baths under cheered elected Crown Prince. The general feeling of the need for a strong leader with considering the bad times, accidents last year and at the latest anarchy by Axel von Fersens death, contributed significantly to the election of Bernadotte. The hope that Sweden with a French marshal who leads even Napoléon aid could recapture Finland, was also an important factor.[57] Hesitant gave Napoléon their consent, and the 23 . September he wrote an authorization for Bernadotte to take the title and rank as the Crown Prince of Sweden.[57]

Bernadotte was released from its obligations as French minion and traveled from Paris on 30 September 1810 with Count Mörner as a result. [57] He arrived Denmark in mid-October and assumed on October 19 at the Swedish Consulate in Elsinore the Lutheran faith in the presence of Archbishop Jacob Axelsson Lindblom, provost one Palm and Nordvall and some Swedes. [61] The next day, on October 20, he went ashore in Helsingborg. [57] He arrived Drottningholm Castle the 30 . October 1810, where he first met King Charles XIII and Queen Hedvig Elisabeth. [62][57] King was hesitant before the meeting, but both he and the Queen were quickly charmed and impressed by Bernadotte. [57]

On November 2, held Jean Baptiste Bernadotte his solemn entry into Stockholm and received on November 5 in the Hall uprights the tribute, after reporting allegiance to Karl & nbsp; XIII and him been adopted under the name Carl & nbsp; Johan. The exiled French officer Charles Jean-Baptiste de Sure Main, then in the Swedish service, wrote in his memoirs about Bernadotte arriving at Stockholm: "For my part I was amazed at how well a former revolutionary soldier fell into prince role. ". [63]

Although widowed queen Sofia Magdalena, mother of the deposed King Gustav IV Adolf, described the new crown prince as "a happy choice, a prince who is accommodating in every set."[57] Désirée and Oscar left Paris in late November and arrived in Stockholm, first on January 6, 1811. [57] For Désirée was town and castle a disappointment, and it was mutual. In his diary wrote Queen Hedvig Charlotta following: "The princess is small, does not look good, and has no character ... Her shyness makes her curt ... A spoiled child, but kind, friendly and compassionate." [57]

In June traveled Désirée to health resort Plombières-les-Bains, and the plan was to return to Stockholm as soon as health was better. However, it took twelve years before she again was back in Sweden. From Curative stays she traveled first to La Grange, then to the house in rue ďAjou 28 in Paris. [64]

Karl Johan had great eloquence, but never learned to speak Swedish, which he eventually regretted deeply. King received tuition in Swedish librarian PA Wall Mark in the years 1810-1813, but did only occasional advantage of it, and for short periods.[65]

The Swedish court was at Karl Johans arrival marked by strict etiquette, which he changed in a more casual direction. [66] The changes consisted in particular in that several representatives of the emerging bourgeoisie was invited and involved in meetings at the castle. The purpose was to strengthen ties between the royal house and the bourgeoisie.[67] During the 26 years he reigned gave Karl Johan 20-25 thousand audience is, in addition, the audiences he gave during their stay in Norway.[68]

1812 years of politics

Template:Depth article Central to what later became known as "1812 years of policy" was Karl Johans opinion that Sweden to protect their " natural boundaries" on all sides should seek union with Norway. Then the Sweden-Norway avoid drawn into European conflicts. [69][55] Crown Prince Karl Johan had soon step in as regent when Karl XIII suffered a stroke less than a month after his arrival in the country. [70] Since he was unfamiliar with Swedish conditions and not know the language, he had to rely on them within society which restrained French fluently, among them Count Mörner, brothers Gustaf Löwenhielm and Carl Löwenhielm, hovkansleren Gustaf af Wetterstedt, General Carl Johan Adlercreutz, General Magnus Björnstjerna and general and diplomat Kurt von Stedingk. [70][71]

As regards foreign policy, was Karl Johan however superior their advisors, and right from her first time in Sweden he decided arbitrarily and often without consulting the Council of State. [72] With him to Sweden took Karl Johan's doubt Napoléon control. Doubts were amplified by France shortly after his arrival forced Sweden to comply continental blockade and declare war against Britain. [73] Napoléon requirements put Sweden and Karl Johan in a very difficult situation, [73] war against Britain was therefore just a game to please France, and trade relations with Britain were maintained in the alley. [70] Karl Johan quickly showed interest in the idea of ​​strengthening Sweden by conquering Norway [55] while he was cool towards the general Swedish desire to try to recapture Finland. [70] < ref name = HojerKronprinstiden60-61> Torvald T: son Höjer 1943, pp. 49-51 </ ref> In order to succeed as a successor to the Throne, he had to either win Finland or Norway, to win the Norway he had to stand on the victors' side after Napoléonskrigene and Denmark had to be among the losers. [55]

Shortly after his arrival in Sweden established Karl Johan a secret political police was due partly to his experiences from France, the then heavily developed police, partly Sweden's troubled history with royal murders, coups and last murder of Axel von Fersen, but also based on his over-developed suspicion. [74] One of those who received pays the price for this, Major General Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, who was unjustly expelled from the country. [74] From his years in France had Karl Johan knowledge of the banking and financial system and was well acquainted with the benefits of a stable economic policy. [75] He therefore worked to stabilize the Swedish finances by getting balance in government spending. [76] In order to get better access to credit, he took steps to establish savings bank is after the British pattern, and the first savings banks were established in 1810. [77] Karl Johan believed that the sharp inflation was caused by speculators and foreign country agents. He ran therefore partly to a protectionist policy of restricting imports, partly currency speculation with private and government funds to counteract the Swedish currency's fall against hamburger banco. [78]

During spring 1811 tried Karl Johan to get French support to the idea Swedish takeover of Norway. [79] Napoléon was dismissive, yet so interested in Finland that Karl Johans envoy realized that a French attack on Russia was prepared. [70] Without preceding Declaration of War possessed French forces Swedish Pomerania in late January 1812. It gave Karl Johan what he needed: an argument against the Swedish public's growing Napoléon and its hostility toward Russia. [80] [64][81] It was quickly initiated negotiations between Sweden and Russia through the Russian ambassador January Pieter van Such Apostle in Stockholm and Carl Löwenhielm in St. Petersburg. The negotiations led to Tsar Alexander in April 1812 promised to support Danish cession of Norway to Sweden. In return to Sweden to accept Russian control of Finland and go to war against Napoléon. [64] Karl Johan also tried to rewrite the British Envoy (ambassador) Edward Thornton to get British support for the requirement of Norway. [64] Karl Johan promised among other things that Norway should not be incorporated in Sweden, "but few autonomy with its own parliament and its own laws.[82]Spring and summer 1812 was parliament again gathered in Orebro. With a very tense foreign policy situation got Karl Johan approval to create a conscript army, levy additional war taxes, increase appanage an [64] and controlling the press by introducing " indragningsmakten ". The authorities gave the right to stop a newspaper that came with unwanted criticism of the new policy. [83] In theory was indragningsmakten a sharp limitation of press freedom one, in practice it proved less effective.

Among the issues Sweden faced was the financial crisis, with high inflation and high foreign debt. [84] The cost of Finnish War charged the country's economy, [85] and in 1809 was Sveriges Riksbank forced to leave silver coin foot. During the Diet of 1812 sat Karl Johan forward a proposal for payment refusal to creditors in countries under French control. The proposal was justified that France withheld Swedish ship and receivables. [86] This decision reduced the external debt of about 11 million to about 4 million riksdaler. [86] During your stay in Orebro got Karl Johan know about Napoleonic invasion of Russia. It quickly led to the peace settlement with Britain. Britain also contributed financial support for Swedish armament, and the Swedish requirement of Norway was in principle accepted.[87][88] In a letter to Napoléon confirmed Karl Johan Sweden's neutrality, that he could offer Tsar Alexander was a series of letters with good advice.

Swedish-Russian understanding and Karl Johans international prestige was further strengthened during the last days of August 1812 through a meeting in Turku between Karl Johan and Tsar Alexander I. The Tsar was in a very stressful situation because of Napoléon progress, and he sought Karl Johans advice that former French marshal. [89] He suggested making Karl Johan to the commander of the Russian forces. [64] At a formal agreement signed during the meeting was Sweden given a free hand against Denmark, as long as the British accepted it. [90]

By these agreements obliged Sweden to participate in struggle against Napoléon (later known as the Sixth Coalition), against that Russia promised to work to ensure that Sweden would get Norway. Besides, it was made a secret so-called family agreement between the two princes, mainly to protect Karl Johans dynasty. [89] During the meeting in Turku suggested czar Karl Johan should be Napoléon successor, a possibility that during the subsequent campaign came to complicate Karl Johans strategy.[91][64][92]

From neutral to ally

File:War of the Sixth Coalition 1812.svg

The sixth coalition, countries and regions that supported France and Napoléon are highlighted in blue, countries and regions that supported the sixth coalition with red.

Throughout the autumn of 1812 continued Karl Johan to process the British while he through Swedish agents tried to influence public opinion in Norway for a union with Sweden. [90][93] [94] In September 1812 came Germaine de Staël and August Wilhelm von Schlegel to Stockholm and made himself available for Karl Johan and Swedish diplomacy. Although he had foreseen Russian victory, he was surprised Napoléon disastrous retreat from Russia in autumn 1812. With a weakened France was possible that Russia and Britain alone could win the war, and without Swedish participation would requirement of Norway be rejected.

Britain and Russia attempted to get Denmark to break with Napoleon, but Karl Johan helped to stop this by alerting strong economic and territorial claims, an alliance change. On 17 March 1813 ordered Karl Johan Swedish troops Stralsund and Rügen to recapture Swedish Pomerania, a vanguard to the strength of 30 & nbsp; 000 man Sweden had promised to put into the Napoléon. [90] The original Swedish plan of conquest of Norway in the same year had to be postponed. [95] Napoléon had gathered new forces, and under Battle of Lützen on 2 May 1813, it was only the lack of cavalry which prevented the French in applying the Russian-German forces a decisive defeat. [90] On 18 May 1813 arrived Karl Johan Stralsund, [90] while his wife Désirée still stayed in France, where she tried to mediate between Karl Johan and Napoléon. [91] He also received an official notice from Napoléon continued neutrality but both were rejected. [91]

Russia and Prussia truce with France 4 June 1813 came very surprising on Karl Johan, and he was enraged against the Tsar's messenger, General Pozzo di Borgo. At a meeting in Trachenberg in Silesia in July between Karl Johan and Russian and Prussian rulers were strategy for the wider struggle against France discussed. [96] [91] With his background as a French marshal was Karl Johan of great benefit as a contributor to a plan for the coming campaign, the British general William Cathcart called "the crown prince's plan." [91] The main concept of the plan was to let three independent armies engage unless French forces, but avoid Napoléon, until all three could be collected against him. [91] Karl Johan got command of nordarméen, consisting of Swedes along with about 95 & nbsp; 000 Prussians and Russians. [97] In all led Karl Johan a force of 158 & nbsp; 000 soldiers. [98] In Sweden, the alliance with Russia very unpopular. Most Swedes held in 1813 still most of Napoléon, which created a challenging situation for Karl Johan. [99]

King Charles John as Crown Prince in 1812.

During the campaign there was a conflict of interests within the coalition between the others who wanted to recapture lost areas, and Sweden under the advance steadily moved away from the target to conquer Norway. [100] Karl Johan tried to save the Swedish troops in front of the settlement with Denmark. [100] Under Karl Johan defended nordarméen Berlin against French attack. In Battle of Großbeeren on 23 August 1813 and in battle of Dennewitz 6. September 1813 received the Prussian troops the heaviest burden. Dennewitz was the first major battle where Swedish forces largely contributed to the victory of the coalition, and the Swedes had only a few wounded. [101]

While Karl Johan was convinced that Napoléon attempt revenge would not succeed, he was appalled by the fate of many of his old comrades suffered after Napoleon's defeat in battle of Waterloo. It may have contributed to Sweden in the years after was a refuge for many exiled political activists. [102] France by its envoy Rumigny assumed Karl Johan had sympathy for his old boss Napoléon and similar antipathy towards the new Board, which was mutual. [102]

Despite Karl Johans concern came Sweden and himself mostly well out of the negotiations during the Congress of Vienna. Of superpowers leaders could Karl Johan only count Tsar Aleksander supporter. Under the political reaction after the Napoleonic wars assumed many Europeans that Karl Johans rule would be short-lived. [103] The foreign skepticism Karl Johan stood in stark contradiction to the attitude in Sweden. Following the successful campaign in the continent and the signing of union with Norway was Karl Johan spring 1815 very popular.[104]

After the Napoleonic Wars it grew gradually until one for Karl Johan quite troublesome opposition among the Swedish stone baths. When parliament collection in 1815 the government had the satisfaction of improved economy, and apparently without full knowledge about extent of the crisis, failed to take the necessary initiatives. Instead, it was stone ends with the Count Fredrik von Schwerin Bogislaus spearheaded who pushed through changes in economic policy. [105]

Parliament's decision sparked a protectionist economic policies, something Karl Johan was more open than their advisors. Meanwhile, he continued from 1815 to try to steer the Swedish currency's course and used substantial portions of their own funds. A political decision of great economic significance as Karl Johans participation was completed in 1815, was the repayment of the remaining public debt using money from Swedish Guadeloupe, [note 1][106]

One issue that was not addressed by the Vienna Congress, the proportion of the Danish-Norwegian public debt one that Sweden's king on behalf of Norway had undertaken by Kiel Peace, Because of the economic crisis in Sweden after the Napoleonic war was called a "urtima parliamentary" (Extraordinary) 1817-1818. Against the advice of an expert committee work Karl Johan for an increase of banknotes (with the corresponding risk of inflation), but did not support it by parliament.[107]

In his last years as Crown Prince Karl Johan increasingly uneasy over his position, after restoration in France and the reactionary wave under holy alliance which removed others of Napoléon men. [108] According to one of his opponents, he was "an ugly stain on a Europe which had been beautifully." [108]

Swedish domestic policy and Union politics

While Karl Johan was convinced that Napoléon attempt revenge would not succeed, he was appalled by the fate of many of his old comrades suffered after Napoleon's defeat in battle of Waterloo. It may have contributed to Sweden in the years after was a refuge for many exiled political activists. [102] France by its envoy Rumigny assumed Karl Johan had sympathy for his old boss Napoléon and similar antipathy towards the new Board, which was mutual. [102]

Despite Karl Johans concern came Sweden and himself mostly well out of the negotiations during the Congress of Vienna. Due to the settlement after the war and surrender of Swedish Pomerania and Guadeloupe the country could and he even collect solid sums in damages. [109] Sweden was also politically quite isolated. Of superpowers leaders could Karl Johan only count Tsar Aleksander supporter. Under the political reaction after the Napoleonic wars assumed many Europeans that Karl Johans rule would be short-lived. [103] The foreign skepticism Karl Johan stood in stark contradiction to the attitude in Sweden. Following the successful campaign in the continent and the signing of union with Norway was Karl Johan spring 1815 very popular.[110]

After the Napoleonic Wars it grew gradually until one for Karl Johan quite troublesome opposition among the Swedish stone baths. When parliament collection in 1815 the government had the satisfaction of improved economy, and apparently without full knowledge about extent of the crisis, failed to take the necessary initiatives. Instead, it was stone ends with the Count Fredrik von Schwerin Bogislaus spearheaded who pushed through changes in economic policy.

Parliament's decision sparked a protectionist economic policies, something Karl Johan was more open than their advisors. Meanwhile, he continued from 1815 to try to steer the Swedish currency's course and used substantial portions of their own funds. [111] A political decision of great economic significance as Karl Johans participation was completed in 1815, was the repayment of the remaining public debt using money from Swedish Guadeloupe, [note 2] at an annual appropriation to the royal house. [106]

One issue that was not addressed by the Vienna Congress, the proportion of the Danish-Norwegian public debt one that Sweden's king on behalf of Norway had undertaken by Kiel Peace, [112] in retrospect known as debt settlement with Denmark. Norway's weak financial position made it necessary that the amount was reduced. During the negotiations it was promoted several counterclaims and from Norwegian side delaying been doing to reach this goal. [112] Because of the economic crisis in Sweden after the Napoleonic war was called a "urtima parliamentary" (Extraordinary) 1817-1818. Against the advice of an expert committee work Karl Johan for an increase of banknotes (with the corresponding risk of inflation), but did not support it by parliament. In his last years as Crown Prince Karl Johan increasingly uneasy over his position, after restoration in France and the reactionary wave under holy alliance which removed others of Napoléon men. According to one of his opponents, he was "an ugly stain on a Europe which had been beautifully."

With Charles XIII slowly dying about age of 64 in 1812, with no issue with the succession, but Elector of Lithaunia, Charles John I already been next in line to the throne. By the time he Charles XIII becomes king, he was 60 years old and prematurely decrepit. This triggered a search for a suitable heir. The initial choice was a Danish prince, Christian August, who took the name Charles August upon being adopted by Charles. However, Charles August died only a few months after his arrival in Sweden. The new crown prince took over the government as soon as he landed in Sweden in 1810. Charles' condition deteriorated every year, especially after 1812, and he eventually became but a mute witness during the government councils chaired by the crown prince, having lost his memory and no longer being able to communicate.[113] Which he becomes Regent and heir presumptive of Sweden and Norway until Charles XIII died.

On 5 February 1818, the King died without issue, Charles John was at Lithuania when the Charles XIII died, Charles John was popular in Lithuania. The Privy Council President, Carl Otto Mörner sent to the Crown prince and Grand Duke that the King Charles XIII died. At first, Charles John thought Lithuania will dethroned he (which they don't). Charles John quickly to Stockholm when he be crowned "King of Sweden" on 7 May 1818 and "King of Norway" on 11 September at same year, as Charles XIV John. Soon after his accessions, he known as the Union-Citizen King.

Reign

Charles XIV John, by Antoine-Jean Gros.

Accession to the throne

When King Charles XIII/II died on 5 February 1818 without surviving legitimate issue, the Elector of Lithuania succeeded him as Charles XIV/III John. Aged 55, he was middle-aged person ever to assume both the Swedish-Norwegian throne.[35]

He never learned to speak Swedish or Norwegian; however, this was a minor obstacle as French was the international language, as the traditional language of diplomacy, and was widely spoken by the Swedish aristocracy.[citation needed] He becoming first elected-king of Sweden and Norway from France.

Charles John's reign witnessed the completion of the southern Göta Canal, begun 22 years earlier, to link Lake Vänern to the sea at Söderköping 180 miles to the east.[citation needed] A radical in his youth, his views had veered steadily rightward over the years, and by the time he ascended the throne he was an ultra-conservative. His autocratic methods, particularly his censorship of the press, were very unpopular, especially after 1823. However, his dynasty never faced serious danger, as the Swedes and the Norwegians alike were proud of a monarch with a good European reputation.[114] [35]


He also faced challenges in Norway as well. The Norwegian constitution gave the Norwegian parliament, the Storting, more power than any legislature in Europe. While Charles John had the power of absolute veto in Sweden, he only had a suspensive veto in Norway. He demanded that the Storting give him the power of absolute veto, but was forced to back down.[115]

Another important issue for the family were Prince Bernadottes legitimacy Oscars marriage. In the summer of 1822 left Oscar with follow on a European trip to meet possible princesses. The choice fell on Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Karl Johan even place the auxiliary units. He believed that her connection to both "the old and new interests», with a father who was a mother Napoléons general and that stemmed from several major German fyrstes barge, was important. Thorvald [116] despite the fact that she had become Queen of Sweden and Norway, held still in Désirée France under the pretext of bad health. Unfortunately for Karl Johan expelled she great interest for the Duke of Richelieu, he found most objectionable to the Queen of Sweden and Norway. [117] In connection with the Crown Prince the Oscars engagement and marriage to Désirée chose return to Sweden in 1823 with his upcoming daughter in law.

Coronation of Karl III Johan as King of Norway

In 1819 began construction of what would become Karlsborg Fortress, a huge edifice in the middle of Sweden. It was supposed to be haven for the Government of Sweden was attacked. The reason for the loss of Finland was built to Russia and the so-called central defense idea. The Fort lay near the Göta Canal and was scheduled together with the channel built.[118] After the Napoleonic wars, Sweden built partially down trade restrictions against overseas and done away with produktplakatet. The work was led by Carl David Skogman, but was only reluctantly accepted by the Karl Johans gate, which stood for a more protectionist line in trade policy.[119]

Due to the lack of progress in the negotiations took Denmark contact with great powers and asked for support for debt settlement with Norway. From the Congress of Aachen in 1818, where the great powers took a kind of guardianship over the smaller European States, did Karl Johan powerful pressure to solve the case.[112][120] He succeeded to get to the United Kingdom to mediate, and it led to a deal with Denmark. It meant that the original claims of 6 million riksdaler " hamburger banco [121] was reduced to 3 million with 10   years of repayment period. [112] [122] Debt Settlement helped for a time to to cool down relations with Russia, while the Uk's estate tied it closer to Sweden. Stormaktenes pressure nourished also up under Karl Johans concern for his position as the chosen monarch of Sweden and Norway. Thorvald [123]

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Reform crisis

At the time, the death of the monarch required fresh elections and, in the general election in 1818. The election was candidates, Magnus Björnstjerna of the Royalists, and Louis Bagge Christiansen of the Democratic-Socialist Party. Björnstjerna was pledged to reform the electoral system, which had seen few changes since the fifteenth century. Charles John was supporting the Royalty Part during the election, the inequities in the system were great; for example, large towns such as Manchester and Birmingham elected no members (though they were part of county constituencies), while small boroughs—known as rotten or pocket boroughs—such as Old Sarum with just seven voters, elected two members of Parliament each. Landowners who controlled seats were even able to sell them to prospective candidates.[124]

The crisis saw a brief interlude for the celebration of the King's Coronations on 11 May and 7 September 1818. At first, William wished to dispense with the coronation entirely, feeling that his wearing the crown while proroguing Parliament answered any need.[125] He was persuaded otherwise by traditionalists. He refused, however, to celebrate the coronation in the expensive way his brother had—the 1821 coronation had cost £240,000, of which £16,000 was merely to hire the jewels. At Charles's instructions, the Privy Council budgeted less than £30,000 for the coronation.[126] When traditionalist Tories threatened to boycott what they called the "Half Crown-nation",[127] the King retorted that they should go ahead, and that he anticipated "greater convenience of room and less heat".[128]

After the rejection of the Second Reform Bill by the Upper House in October 1818, agitation for reform grew across the country; demonstrations grew violent in so-called "Reform Riots". In the face of popular excitement, the Grey ministry refused to accept defeat in the House of Lords, and re-introduced the Bill, which still faced difficulties in the House of Lords. Frustrated by the Lords' recalcitrance, Grey suggested that the King create a sufficient number of new peers to ensure the passage of the Reform Bill. The King objected—though he had the power to create an unlimited number of peers, he had already created 22 new peers in his Coronation Honours.[129] William reluctantly agreed to the creation of the number of peers sufficient "to secure the success of the bill".[130] However, the King, citing the difficulties with a permanent expansion of the peerage, told Grey that the creations must be restricted as much as possible to the eldest sons and collateral heirs of existing peers, so that the created peerages would eventually be absorbed as subsidiary titles. This time, the Lords did not reject the bill outright, but began preparing to change its basic character through amendments. Grey and his fellow ministers decided to resign if the King did not agree to an immediate and large creation to force the bill through in its entirety.[131] The King refused, and accepted their resignations. The King attempted to restore the Duke of Wellington to office, but Wellington had insufficient support to form a ministry and the King's popularity sank to an all-time low. Mud was slung at his carriage and he was publicly hissed. The King agreed to reappoint Grey's ministry, and to create new peers if the House of Lords continued to pose difficulties. Concerned by the threat of the creations, most of the bill's opponents abstained and the Reform Act 1832 was passed. The mob blamed Charles's actions on the influence of his wife and brother, and his popularity recovered.[132]

Assassination attempt

Charles XIV/III John in 1819, day before his assassination attempt.

On 3 August 1819, on Saturday, Charles, Count of Artois (future Charles X of France) are visiting the Charles John's birth place, Fort-la-Latte in Brittany, France. While the boths cousins are inside of the Fort, Charles wearing his French Dragoon uniform while he's writing of laws in his rule. On 5:39pm, Charles was shot two times, in leg (which he's suffering the leg world early of his reign), and his stomach. Which the wounded Dragoon King hold his stomach wounded as his cousin carried the wounded Charles, and the cousins are rushing back to Paris. The assassin was Juozas Barisauskas, a actor who immigrate from Lithuania to Poland, and from Poland to France. Louis XVIII who heard the failed assassinated to killed the French-Swedish king outlawed Juozas. Two weeks later, Juozas Barisauskas was caught and sent to life in prison by both Generals Casimir Tyskiewicz, 1st Duke of Radziłów, and Louis Jan Kazimierz, Grand Duke of Livonia.

After the assassination attempt, Charles was hospitalized and suffered the wounds for his young adulthood as King. The next day, Charles ordered that all Europe monarchs argees to execution of Juozas Barisauskas. Juozas Barisauskas was executed on 4 September. Charles was still suffered the wounds for rest of young adulthood. But Charles is still backed on throne.

Despite holding the imperial throne, Charles's real authority was limited by the German princes. They gained a strong foothold in the Empire's territories, and Charles was determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands. An inquisition was established as early as 1822. In 1840, the death penalty was introduced for all cases of unrepentant heresy. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alba, personally suppressed the Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1820.[133]

Norwegian constitution celebration

The opposition in Sweden were strengthened towards the parliament in 1823, and it was raised demands for increased freedom of enterprise.[134] It was in contravention of fiscal policy and Karl Johan also lost the battle for increased banknotes.[135] The opposition was still predominantly factual, and the king's person was usually held outside the political struggle. Count Carl Henrik Anckarswärd s increased weight among opposition leaders helped to give it a more personal nature, and there was also a tendency to decrease allocations for defense.

The conflict arose in connection with the Norwegians' desire to mark Constitution by celebrating 17. May.[136] The first major celebration of the day took place in 1824, when it was celebrated privately.[136] In 1825 and 1826 the day again marked private, while in 1827 was marked more officially. The Swedish governor Johan August Sandels interpreted under Karl Johans visit his statement that he would "condone" the celebration, which later turned out to be a misunderstanding.[136][137]

In the struggle for a closer union grip Karl Johan, the Norwegian Government's advice, the drastic measures to convene an extraordinary parliament.[138] To secure support from from Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, informed the Swedish sending man in St. Petersburg on a possible repeal of the Norwegian Constitution. Such measures were Swedes astonishment strongly dissuaded by the czar. The king himself was in Christiania during the extraordinary parliament in 1828, and he gave a clear message that the celebration of May 17 was undesirable, which was respected. [136]

In 1829, it was also prohibited celebration of the day, but it looked so steamship a named "Constitution" calls Christiania precisely on the day of the constitution, that constitution. This led to shouting at the port, and eventually an accumulation of people at Stortorget. After warnings from the authorities, the amount eventually spread by soldiers, which later became known as Torg team.[136] Torg Created led to strong political protests in Norway and governor, Count von Platen, received harsh criticism.[139] After his death the same autumn remained vacant office, which involved a clear deterioration of the Union.[139] Despite the fact that a number of his advisers and officials were highly unpopular and partly detested in Norway, was Karl Johan although very popular, even after the strong conflicts in the 1820s . [139] Although it eventually became tolerated to mark May 17, held the king always a certain oversee celebrations. [136]

A major factor in contemporary international politics was the rivalry between Great Britain and Russia.[69] At a war between the two countries would Sweden and Norway with long coastline being particularly vulnerable.[140] In spite of several tensions between the two great powers was no conflict in Charles John's life. His two kingdoms avoided a situation where countries neutrality, as Karl Johans foreign policy built on, could be jeopardized.[69] friendship between Karl Johan and Alexander & nbsp; In continued mostly to his death 1825, his successor Nicholas I showed Karl Johan great respect (as by his unexpected visit in June 1838). Karl Johan received strong Russian support in for him very important issue, the requirement that the deposed Gustav IV Adolf's son should stop calling himself Prince of Sweden.[141]

The Great King, and the Dragoon King, Charles XIV John in 1825. By Fredric Westin.

A fairly sharp conflict with other countries acted on the so-called "skeppshandelsfrågan."[142][143] In essence, in order to raise funds for the renovation of the Swedish navy was in 1825 sold more elderly Swedish warship, first half and then a further three.[142] Formallywere buyers English trading, but these were only intermediaries for Spain's American colonies, newly independent, but yet only recognized by Britain. [142] For Sweden was the transaction's political significance is also important, hoped was to increase trade with the new countries in America.[143]

The other major powers in the so-called Holy Alliance considered these states as rebel land and protesting thus against the sale of warships The Russian Emperor Alexander In threatened at last to support Spanish reprisals against Swedish shipping, whether or not delivery of the three most recently sold vessels were canceled.[142] Karl Johan stood long for the sale was to take its course, but gave eventually succumb to the ministers' request to stop the sale.[142] It was for Karl Johan a loss of prestige both nationally and internationally. [144] According to the contract was Sweden obliged to pay compensation, and instead of a gain ended affair with losses, which led to sharp comments from state audit (1827) and Parliament (1828-1830).[144]

At the Diet of years 1828-1830 had the government by organizing their followers by Freiherr Carl Johan af Nordin and Count Magnus Brahe mostly prevailed. Myntrealisationen (a form of devaluation in the transition to silver standard) was adopted implemented against Karl Johans energetic protest. It was perhaps his greatest political defeat in Sweden, but ended the uncertainty in the financial system, which had damaged the country's economic development since the crisis after the Napoleonic War.[145][146] July Revolution in France in 1830 came very surprising on Karl Johan. Although he was cool, sometimes dismissive towards the French King Charles X, gave effect in other countries, as in the Belgian Revolution, are of concern to Norway. The uprising was indeed an inspiration for union opponents and brought turmoil to the Norwegian political life. [147] During the Polish war of liberation (1830-1831) was the Swedish opposition very Polish friendly, which made the king worried.[148] The events helped to underpin his conservatism and suspicion.

War of the Ukrainian Succession

Causes and build-up to the war

Charles XIV John of Sweden in 1826.

After the Forty Years' War, Ukraine was ruled by the Turchynov Hetman Ivan IV. Ivan was a natural opponent of Napoleon and was allied with the Third Coalition against him. However, after defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz and the Treaty of Pressburg, Ferdinand was forced to cede Naples to the French in early 1806.

Initially, Napoleon’s brother Joseph Bonaparte ruled Naples. Then in 1808, Joseph was made King of Spain and Napoleon installed his brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as King of Naples. Murat originally ruled Naples following the same legal and social system used in France, whilst still participating in Napoleon's campaigns. But following the disastrous Battle of Leipzig, Murat abandoned La Grande Armée to try to save his throne. As defeat in the War of the Sixth Coalition loomed, Murat increasingly moved away from Napoleon, eventually signing a treaty with Austria in January 1814 and joined the Allied side.

But as the Congress of Vienna progressed, Murat's position became less and less secure as there was growing support to restore Ferdinand to the throne. The most vocal of all Murat's opponents was the United Kingdom, which had never recognised Murat's claim to the throne and moreover had been guarding Ferdinand in Sicily, ensuring he retained the Sicilian throne.

When Murat was informed of Napoleon's plan to escape from exile in Elba on 1 March 1815, Murat sided with him once more, and declared war on Austria as soon as he learned of Napoleon's return to France.

Austrian counterattack and Battle of Tolentino

The Battle of Occhiobello proved to be the turning point of the war. Murat's attempts to cross the River Po proved unsuccessful and after two days of heavy fighting, the Neapolitans fell back after suffering over 2,000 casualties. To make matters worse, the United Kingdom and Kingdom of Poland declared war on Murat and sent a fleet over to Italy. Charles invades Italy beginning of the Hundred Days.

Meanwhile, Frimont had ordered a counterattack to try to relieve the garrison in Ferrara. He ordered a corps under the command of Bianchi to advance on Carpi, which was guarded by a brigade under the command of Guglielmo Pepe. Another column was ordered to cut off Pepe's line of retreat. However, Carascosa, who was in command of the Neapolitan troops around Modena, saw the Austrian trap and ordered a retreat to a defensive line behind the Panaro where he was joined by the remainder of his division, which had been evacuated from Reggio Emilia and Modena. But even after Carascosa's retreat, Murat was still in a position to continue the siege at Ferrara. In response, Frimont ordered a corps under the command of General Neipperg to attack his entrenched right flank. On 12 April, after bitter fighting at the Battle of Casaglia, the Neapolitan troops were driven from their entrenched positions.

Murat was forced to lift the Siege of Ferrara and retreated back on the road to Bologna. On 14 April, Frimont attempted to force a crossing of the Panaro, but was repelled. However, only two days later, Murat and his army retreated from Bologna, which was quickly retaken by the Austrians. In Tuscany meanwhile, Murat's two Guard Divisions also inexplicably retreated without being harassed in any way by Nugent. By 15 April, the Austrians had retaken Florence and when the news reached Murat, he ordered a general retreat of his main force back to their original headquarters in Ancona.

With the road to Florence now clear and the Italian peninsula opening up in front of him, Frimont ordered two corps south to deal with Murat once and for all. Bianchi's corps was ordered to march towards Foligno via Florence in an attempt to threaten the rear of the Neapolitans and to cut off their line of direct retreat, whilst Neipperg's corps was sent into direct pursuit of Murat as he retired to Ancona. ith the war turning in Austria's favour, Frimont was ordered back to Lombardy to oversee the army that was now amassing in preparation for an invasion of France. A large portion of the Austrian force was also recalled, leaving only three Austrian corps totalling around 35,000 men in Italy. Murat, who placed too much faith in his Guard Divisions and believing they would be able to halt the advance of Bianchi and Nugent, retreated slowly, even turning to check the pursuit at the Ronco and Savio rivers. But the Austrian advanced guard caught the retreating Neapolitan force twice by surprise at Cesenatico and Pesaro. Murat hurried his retreat and by late April, his main force had arrived safely in Ancona, where he was reunited with his two Guard Divisions.

Charles I John in 1827.

Meanwhile, Bianchi's corps had made swift progress. Arriving in Florence on 20 April, they had reached their target of Foligno by 26 April and now threatened Murat's line of retreat. Neipperg's corps was still in pursuit and by 29 April, his advanced guard had arrived in Fano, just two days' march away.

However, the two Austrian armies were separated and Murat hoped to quickly defeat Bianchi before turning on Neipperg. Much like Napoleon's tactics before Waterloo, Murat sent a division under Carascosa north to stall Neipperg whilst his main force headed west to face Bianchi. Murat originally planned to face Bianchi near the town of Tolentino, but on 29 April, Bianchi's advanced guard succeeded in driving out the small Neapolitan garrison there. Bianchi, having arrived first, then formed a defensive position around the hills to the east of Tolentino. With Neipperg's army approaching to his rear, Murat was forced to give battle at Tolentino on 2 May 1815. After two days of inconclusive fighting, Murat learned that Neipperg had outmanoeuvred and defeated Carascosa at the Battle of Scapezzano and was approaching. Sensing the inevitable, Murat ordered a retreat. The battle had severely damaged the morale of the Neapolitan troops and many senior officers had been casualties in the battle. The battered Neapolitan army fell back in disarray. On 5 May, a joint Anglo-Austrian fleet began a blockade of Ancona, eventually taking the entire garrison of the city as prisoners.

By 12 May, Bianchi, who was now in command of both his and Neipperg's corps, had taken the town of L'Aquila along with its castle. The main Austrian army was now marching on Popoli. During this time, General Nugent had continued to advance from Florence. Having arrived in Rome on 30 April, allowing the Pope to return, Nugent advanced towards Ceprano. By mid May, Nugent had intercepted Murat at San Germano (now Cassino). Here, Murat attempted to check Nugent's advance but with the main Austrian force under Bianchi in pursuit, Murat was forced to call off the action on 16 May. Soon afterwards, the Austrian armies united near Calvi and began the march on Naples. Murat was forced to flee to Corsica and later Cannes disguised as a sailor on a Danish ship, after a British fleet blockading Naples destroyed all the Neapolitan gunboats in the harbour.

Acceptance of the will of Ivan IV and consequences

William Radziłów declared as "King of Italy" on 20 May 1815.

On his deathbed in 1834, Ivan IV unexpectedly changed his will. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Ukraine, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that Sweden and Poland was more likely to preserve his empire intact. He thus offered the entire empire to the Ivan's second son Pedro, Duke of Right-bank of Ukraine, provided it remained undivided. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.[149] If Pedro refused, the throne would be offered to Casimir. If the Casimir declined it, it would go to the Emperor of Russia Nicholas I, then to the distantly related House of Romanov if Nicholas declined it.[150]

On 20 May, Neapolitan Generals Pepe and Carascosa sued for peace and concluded the Treaty of Casalanza with the Austrians, bringing the war to an end. On 23 May, the main Austrian army entered Naples and restored King Ferdinand to the Neapolitan throne. Murat, meanwhile, would attempt to reclaim his kingdom. Coming back from exile, he landed with 28 men at Pizzo, Calabria on 8 October 1815. However, unlike Napoleon months earlier, Murat was not greeted with a warm welcome and was soon captured by Bourbon troops. Five days after he landed at Pizzo, he was executed in the town's castle, exhorting the firing squad to spare his face. This ended the final chapter of the Napoleonic Wars.

After Napoleon exiled after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the Seventh Coalition allies realized that Charles I will be a took control of all Italy, but the King refused, but he recognizes his son, William, Duke of Lodz become Philip I of Italy on 20 May, which the Allies accepted.

Shortly after the end of the war, the Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily were finally united to create the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Although the two kingdoms had been ruled by the same king since 1735, the formal union did not happen until 1816. King Philip I would become King Philip I of the Two Sicilies. Meanwhile, the Austrians consolidated their gains in Northern Italy into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia.

Although Murat failed to save his crown, or to start a popular nationalist movement with the Rimini Proclamation, Murat had ignited a debate for Italian unification. Indeed, some consider the Rimini Proclamation as the start of Risorgimento. The intervention of Austria only heightened the fact the Habsburgs were the single most powerful opponent to unification, which would eventually lead to three wars of independence against the Austrians. Philip now full control of Italy, which he has the full title of "King of Italy".

Peace and Aftermath

Charles XIV John in 1840.

The Treaty of Casalanza which ended the War of the Ukrainian Succession, was signed on 20 May 1840 between the Hetman Ivan IV on the one hand and the Austrian Empire, as well as the United Kingdom, on the other.

Following the decisive defeat at the Battle of Tolentino and the Battle of San Germano, the Napoleonic King of Naples, Joachim Murat, had fled to Corsica and General Michele Carascosa, who was now the head of the Neapolitan army following Murat's flight, sued for peace. The treaty was signed by Pietro Colletta (who was acting as plenipotentiary to Michele Carascosa), Adam Albert von Neipperg (who was acting as plenipotentiary to the commander-in-chief of the Austrian forces, Frederick Bianchi), and Lord Burghersh (the English minister plenipotentiary in Florence).

The terms of the treaty were quite lenient on the defeated Neapolitans. All the Neapolitan generals were allowed to keep their rank and the borders of the Kingdom of Naples remained unchanged. The treaty merely called for the return of the pre-Napoleonic King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Sicily to the Neapolitan throne, the return of all prisoners of war and for all the Neapolitan garrisons to lay down their arms, with the exception of Ancona, Pescara and Gaeta. These three cities were all being blockaded by an Anglo-Austrian fleet and were out of General Carascosa's control. These three garrisons eventually surrendered, although the Siege of Gaeta would last till August, long after Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.

The opposition in Sweden is strengthened

Karl III Johan's habit to work from the bedroom came during the 1830s to be referred to as "Sängkammarregementet".

By the 1830s was a breakthrough for the Swedish opposition. July monarchy in France strengthened liberal ideas across Europe. In Sweden, the new newspaper ' ' Aftonbladet "a mouthpiece for the opposition. The newspaper's influence soon exceeded the conservative press, and the King's old advisors was older and more negative towards changes. Because of his lack of knowledge of the Swedish language, it was difficult for the Karl Johan Street to take the initiative to the reforms in the Constitutional Treaty when political controversies came up, as the representative question (extended the right to vote), the State Council's organization and rådgivernes relationship to the King. One of the opposition's key demands was a clearer Mariah Carey after the British model, where the Ministers were responsible to the Reichstag.[83]

Karl Johan was still concerned about what happened in his old home country France and tried on several show to give a positive image of itself to French opinion.[151] Unfortunately for Karl Johan, he was often made fun of and to some extent looked down on as a traitor, as in a novel by the famous French writer Honoré de Balzac.[151]

Karl Johan's last major battle with the Norwegian Parliament unfolded in 1836. The background was partly the desire for increased municipal self-government by President-laws, but also Norwegian as a separate principle Affairs Norwegian flag of Commerce, the design of the coins and the Norwegian efforts for a more equal union.[152] The King also extended irritated over the Norwegian celebration of 17. may, among other things, by the new national monument Krohgstøtten. With the pretext that the Storting had been sitting overall out of the minimum period, dissolved the Parliament, Karl Johans gate.[153] it was a powerful and very unexpected reaction, possibly related to his conflict with the opposition in Sweden and his concern about the shortfall in the "kabinettskassan". Parliament responded with a new riksretts indictment, this time against the Norwegian Prime Minister in Stockholm, Severin Lion shield. Karl Johan was considering drastic measures, in practice coup d'etat.[154] Without the support of Russia, he chose to postpone the sentence after riksretts points it was violation of the same year appointed Karl Johan count Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg as the new Lord Lieutenant in Christiania. It was the first time a Norwegian got the position. The post had been vacant since 1829, after Baltzar von Platen's death.[155]

King Karl Johan visit Trondheim in 1835.

Opposing writers as Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe and Anders Lindeberg began to correct their attack against the King personally. The so-called one Board (Swedish: allenastyrandet) and the strong influence that his favorite count Magnus Brahe was believed to exercise (Braheväldet) next to his actual advisors, was criticized. The Reichstag 1834-1835 was difficult for the Government, which suffered several defeats thanks to the opposition's dominance in the civil-and peasantry and in "förstärkt State suts closet".[156]

In the following years was the controversy against the opposition further sharpened through the fight against the press, as the Swedish Government by the Chancellor August von Hartmansdorff led by indragningsmakten as a weapon. Conviction of the author Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe for Lese majeste in the summer of 1838 led to unrest in Stockholm. Two people died in riots, and the idea of Republic received a certain amount of support.[157][83] towards the end of the year lessened the tension somewhat, the opposition got in touch with the Crown Prince and hoped for change after its tiltreden.[158]

From the middle of the 1830s was skandinavisme n forward with a certain strength in both Sweden and Norway, but especially in Denmark. The movement had sting both against Germany and Russia. After German dissatisfaction and Russian press denounced the Government in Sweden by Karl Johan skandinavismen in strong language in 1837.[159]

Karl Johan visited Norway for the last time in the winter of 1838-1839. It was his tenth as Norwegian and Swedish King,[160][161] and he was greeted enthusiastically welcomed in the places he visited. He stayed in Christiania from December 1838 to May 1839, and politically it was a very quiet time. There were no major conflicts with Parliament, and the King's consent to the the liberation had boosted his popularity.[158] with a background in the political battle with the liberal opposition in Stockholm was main street closest to a "political rekonvalsent" in Norway.[162]

Later life, illness and death

Charles XIV and III John and his royal progeny, by Charles Turner, from a mezzotint by Samuel Woodburn (1814), after Willem de Passe

With Charles' health getting worst, during the last years of his reign, Charles and his brother James Casimir ended the Forty Years' War. Upon Charles's health decluded of Naples to Philip on 25 July, he was invested with the kingdom (officially "Naples and Sicily") on 2 October by Pope Julius III. All the symbolic questions had been settled, Norway had obtained more influence on foreign policy, the office of viceroy or governor was kept vacant or filled by Norwegian Severin Løvenskiold, and trade between the countries prospered from treaties (mellomriksloven) that promoted free trade and effectively abolished protective tariff walls. The completion of the Kongsvinger Line, the first railway connection across the border, greatly sped up communications. A political climate of conciliation was advanced by Swedish concessions on the issue of equality between the countries.[163]

Charles was visiting to Poland for last time, he visiting his brother, James Casimir to celebrating the victory of the forty year in after few days. The Treaty of Lodz was signed to end the war on 6 February 1835. After the conclusion of the Reichstag in 1841 died down the conflicts around Karl Johans rule in Sweden. When the 77-year-old monarch in 1839, celebrated its 21st anniversary as King, he got warm good wishes from all over the Empire. One could by the end of his reign point to a rich and peaceful development in different areas: a population that almost corresponded to Sweden's and Finland's by adskillelsen, a low government debt, new transport roads in the form of channels (Canal with several) and roads,[142] a strong growing farming, a more than doubled the industry, a restored bank-and coin being, reduced taxes, but customs revenue to mangedoblede despite the fact that toll rates on specific goods had been put down, and more.

An elderly Charles XIV John

Karl Johan's last illness period began in January 1844 with gangrene in a foot. [164] On its 78th birthday, 26th of January 1840 at 6 in the morning, he was suddenly ill and was bedridden. On 5 March, he had a stroke which was followed by a coma. The King died after 42 days of illness at 15:30 on 8 March. [165] He woke up just before he died and his son whispered Oscars name. [164] "no one has filled a path similar to my", he could say with emphasis during his last illness. So he reflected over the changes on the Scandinavian Peninsula that he had contributed to the crisis during the years 1810-1814.

The funeral in the Riddarholmskyrkan took place on 26 April 1840. The funeral only last 144 hours (6 days) from 26 April to 2 May. Jordfestelsen was officiated by the Archbishop Carl Fredrik af Wingård. Karl Johan is laid to rest in Bernadottenes Tomb. [113]

Legacy

Statue in Norrköping erected in 1846.

In accordance with the 1812 year politics led Karl Johan, both as Crown Prince and as King, such a peaceful policy that Sweden by his death have not previously had such a long period of peace.[69] as opposed to the other European royal houses can Sweden and Norway under the Karl Johan be seen as exceptions with their constitutional limitations of the Royal power, as Karl Johan that dealt with the realpolitiker.[166]

Karl Johan was careful to stress that he was chosen by the Swedish beaches to be King, his position was therefore built on citizens ' free choice. Ekedahl, [167] He had read the Montesquieu and was a fan of separation of powers. [168] [169] in France was Karl Johans legacy stained by Napoléons memoirs, the former marskalken, both have had their share of the blame for the disastrous French defeat in Russia and for the sixth coalition victory in the battle of Leipzig in 1813. In Norway was Karl Johan as a person popular, [170] but his reputation was toned down for the sake of national struggle during and after the Union with Sweden. [171]

Karl Johan's death removed an uncertainty factor in Norwegian politics and led to work on a closer union (amalgamasjon) for the well was completed. For various reasons, it was after his death, neither from Norwegian or Swedish side desirable with a closer union. [172]

King Karl Johan have put more slots after him in Norway. He gave large cash gifts to the creation of the so-called children's asylums (today known as the nursery). Børneasylet in the Worcester and to various cultural organizations. His greatest project was the construction of the Royal Palace in Christiania. Karl Johan should have gotten the idea by a riding in the autumn of 1822 and the following year he engaged the Danish architect Linstow to the work. [173]

There are a number of monuments of Karl Johan, in front of the Royal Palace in Oslo stands Karl Johan monument with the King on horseback, there are also monuments in Stockholm, Norrköping and Örebro. Former main base for the Norwegian Navy, Karljohansvern, was named in honor of him in 1854 as "Carljohansværn værft», today termed the area by London only as Karljohansvern.

The German-born Friedrich August Reissiger, " Requiem for King Carl Johan " after the death of Karl Johans. [174] Rekviemet was performed first time 30. March 1844 in the Roman Catholic Church premises in Oslo.

Template:Citation/patent

Oslo's parade Street Karl Johans gate was given its name in 1852, eight years after the death of Karl Johans. Streets named after Karl Johan is also in Trondheim (Carl Johans gate) and in Halden and Sarpsborg. In Sweden have empire style been called Karl Johansstil, and the fungus mushroom has been called karljohanssvamp.

Physical appearance

King Charles XIV and III John, the Union King, portrait of King Charles XIV/III John, c. 1809, from the collection of Drottningholm Palace.

Charles John was a lean and dandy figure, standing at 6 feet, 4 inch (1.93 m) tall, and weighing between 120 and 150 pounds (76 kg) on average. Charles John also had an unruly shock of black hair, which had completely grayed/silvered by the time he became king at age 53. He had penetrating deep hazel eyes. Charles John was one of the more popular Swedish monarchs, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his lung that was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes made his whole body shake.

Religion

Radzilowski's baptism took place in Paris on 14 December 1766, he was choice to be a Roman Catholic. In 1810, before his military service ended in France, he was a elected Crown Prince and Regent of Sweden, later (Crown Prince and Regent of Sweden and Norway; from 1814 to 1818) when he received the homage of the Riksdag of the Estates, and he was adopted by King Charles XIII under the name of "Charles John" (Karl Johan).[35]

At the same time, he converted from Roman Catholicism to the Lutheranism of the Swedish court.[114] Many honours were bestowed upon him, such as an honorary membership of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 21 November 1810.[citation needed]

Before he accessed to the throne, Charles John was at his palace home in Lithuania, as Elector of Lithuania, but on 5 February 1818, Charles XIII died without issue, he become the New King of Sweden and Norway, also known as, the Dragoon King. His brother, King James Casimir I already have Lutheranism since he been King of Poland in 1795. Both James Casimir and Charles gained alliance with each other as the Lithuanian Kings during the Forty Years' War, and War of the Ukrainian Succession. Charles John was the first Swedish king who switched from roman to Lutheran since Gustav I.[175]

Favourites

File:William I of the Netherlands.jpg

William I of the Netherlands (1772–1843), by Peter Paul Rubens, 1925

Throughout his life Charles had close relationships with male courtiers, which has caused debate among historians about their nature.[176] After his accession in Poland, his peaceful and scholarly attitude contrasted strikingly with the bellicose and flirtatious behaviour of Elizabeth,[176] as indicated by the contemporary epigram Rex fuit Elizabeth, nunc est regina Jacobus (Elizabeth was King, now James is Queen).[177] Some of Charles's biographers conclude that he is friend of William I of the Netherlands, Crown Prince Frederick William (later Frederick William IV of Prussia), and best friend and ally, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen (later Duke of Teschen) were his favorite friends and allies.[178] Restoration of Apethorpe Hall, undertaken in 2004–08, revealed a previously unknown passage linking the bedchambers of James and Villiers.[179] Others argue that the relationships were not sexual.[180] James's Basilikon Doron lists sodomy among crimes "ye are bound in conscience never to forgive", and James's wife Anne gave birth to seven live children, as well as suffering two stillbirths and at least three other miscarriages.[181] Buckingham himself provides evidence that he slept in the same bed as the King, writing to James many years later that he had pondered: "whether you loved me now ... better than at the time which I shall never forget at Farnham, where the bed's head could not be found between the master and his dog".[182] However, this can be interpreted, in the context of seventeenth-century court life, as non-sexual,[183] and remains ambiguous.[184]

When the Earl of Salisbury died in 1612, he was little mourned by those who jostled to fill the power vacuum.[185] Until Salisbury's death, the Elizabethan administrative system over which he had presided continued to function with relative efficiency; from this time forward, however, James's government entered a period of decline and disrepute.[186] Salisbury's passing gave James the notion of governing in person as his own chief Minister of State, with his young Scottish favourite, Robert Carr, carrying out many of Salisbury's former duties, but James's inability to attend closely to official business exposed the government to factionalism.[187]

The Howard party, consisting of Northampton, Suffolk, Suffolk's son-in-law Lord Knollys, and Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, along with Sir Thomas Lake, soon took control of much of the government and its patronage. Even the powerful Carr, hardly experienced for the responsibilities thrust upon him and often dependent on his intimate friend Sir Thomas Overbury for assistance with government papers,[188] fell into the Howard camp, after beginning an affair with the married Frances Howard, Countess of Essex, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, whom James assisted in securing an annulment of her marriage to free her to marry Carr.[189] In summer 1615, however, it emerged that Overbury, who on 15 September 1613 had died in the Tower of London, where he had been placed at the King's request,[190] had been poisoned.[191] Among those convicted of the murder were Frances and Robert Carr, the latter having been replaced as the king's favourite in the meantime by Villiers. James pardoned Frances and commuted Carr's sentence of death, eventually pardoning him in 1624.[192] The implication of the King in such a scandal provoked much public and literary conjecture and irreparably tarnished James's court with an image of corruption and depravity.[193] The subsequent downfall of the Howards left Villiers unchallenged as the supreme figure in the government by 1619.[194]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal styles of
King Charles XIV & III John
Av de nåd Gud, Kung av Sverige och Norge
Royal Monogram of King Charles XIV of Sweden.svg
Reference style His Most Royal Majesty
Spoken style Your Royal Majesty
Alternative style Min Konge
  • 26 January 1763 – 12 February 1795: Jean Baptiste Jules Radziłówsky, Duke of Radziłów and Lodz
  • 12 February 1795 – 8 March 1844: His Most Serene Highness Charles John I, The Electoral Prince and Grand Duke of Lithuania
  • 5 November 1810[35]
– 4 November 1814: His Royal Highness Charles John, Crown Prince of Sweden
– 5 February 1818: His Royal Highness Charles John, Crown Prince of Sweden and Norway

In Sweden-Norway Charles John used the official Style "Charles XIV and III John, by the grace of God, King of Sweden and Norway, etc." In some cases (especially in treaties), the formula "Duke of Latvia-Belarus and Prince-Elector of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth" was added before the phrase "etc."

Honours

King Charles John was the 909th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain and the 28th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword in Portugal.

Arms

Coat of arms of Jean-Baptiste Radziłówsky.svg
Crown Prince of Radziłów and Lodz
Serafimersköld Prince Karl Johan Riddarholmen.svg
Coat of arms of Crown Prince Charles John according the armorial of Knights of the order of the Seraphim.
Armoiries du Roi Karl Johan de Suède et de Norvège.svg
Coat of arms of King Charles XIV John of Sweden and Norway
Royal Monogram of King Charles XIV of Sweden.svg
A Monogram for King Charles XIV John of Sweden and Norway used on a coin

Ancestry

Issue

Further information: Descendants of Charles XIV John of Sweden''

Charles's queen, Désirée Clary, gave birth to seven six who survived beyond birth, of which five reached adulthood:[195]

  1. George I of Greece (11 July 1790 – 22 March 1869), first King of Greece, married 1822, Maria de Lodz. Died aged 78.
  2. William I, King of Württemberg, Italy and Naples (22 March 1791 – 25 June 1864), married in 1837, Caroline Augusta of Bavaria until her death in 1864. Died aged 73.
  3. Princess Françoise of Orleans (12 May 1792 – 5 May 1794), Died age 1.
  4. Oscar I, King of Sweden and Norway (17 August 1794 – 8 July 1859), married 1823, Josephine of Leuchtenberg. Succeeded Charles XIV John. Died aged 64.
  5. Jean-Baptiste Radziłówski (24 February 1795 – 9 October 1862), marired Marie of Orleans, Died of shotwound in his stomach at 67.
  6. Charles Daleno Radzilowski (24 April 1798 – 17 October 1877), married in 1832, Marie-Gabrielle Capet. Becoming first President of Poland (1859-1867). Died aged 79.
  7. Alexander Charles Radzilow (24 February 1827 – 1 Decmeber 1888), married 1841, Anne, Duchess Alexander of Württemberg. Died at aged 61.

In popular culture

Charles XIV and I has been featured as an historical figure in many films about the era of the Ancien Régime, especially those depicting the lives of Marie Antoinette and Madame du Barry.

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Throughout Charles's life, Sweden-Norway used the Old Style Julian calendar. Lithuania adopted the New Style Gregorian calendar on 1 March 1797 (N.S.) / 19 February 1797 (O.S.). Old Style is used for dates in this article unless otherwise indicated; however, years are assumed to start from 1 January and not 25 March, which was the English New Year.
  2. Cronholm 1902, pp. 249-71.
  3. Staff writer (25 January 1831). "Scots Greys". The Times (UK): p. 3. "...they will have the additional honour of attending our "Elector King"..."
  4. Staff writer (29 June 1837). "Will of his late Majesty Charles XIV John". The Times (UK): p. 5. "...ever since the accession of our Elector King..."
  5. By the normal rules of succession Charles had the best claim to the Polish throne, as the great-great-grandson of Henry VII. However, Henry VIII's will had passed over the Scottish line of his sister Margaret in favour of that of their younger sister Mary Tudor. In the event, Henry's will was disregarded. Stewart, pp. 159–161; Willson, pp. 138–141.
  6. Willson, p. 17. As the Earl of Bedford was a Protestant, his place in the ceremony was taken by Jean, Countess of Argyll.
  7. Donaldson, p. 99.
  8. Thomson, Thomas, ed., Sir James Melvill of Halhill; Memoirs of his own life, Bannatyne Club (1827), pp. 171–172.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Bain 1911, p. 931.
  10. Hatton, Ragnhild (1978). George I: Elector and King. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 26–28. ISBN: 0-500-25060-X.
  11. Hatton, p. 29
  12. Hatton, p. 34
  13. Hatton, p. 30
  14. Hatton, pp. 36, 42
  15. Hatton, pp. 43–46
  16. There would be one other daughter, born in 1701. Melusine von der Schulenburg acted as George's hostess openly from 1698 until his death.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Hatton, pp. 51–61
  18. Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasury of Royal Scandals. New York: Penguin Books. p. 152. ISBN: 978-0-7394-2025-6.
  19. Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.5
  20. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.8-13
  21. Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.14
  22. Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.11
  23. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.15
  24. 24.00 24.01 24.02 24.03 24.04 24.05 24.06 24.07 24.08 24.09 24.10 24.11 24.12 24.13 24.14 24.15 24.16 The American Cyclopædia 1879, p. 571.
  25. Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.42
  26. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.42
  27. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.42-43
  28. Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.44
  29. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.43
  30. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.60−61
  31. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.61
  32. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.84
  33. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.88
  34. Barton 1921.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 35.7 35.8 35.9 Bain 1911, p. 932.
  36. Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.193
  37. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.135
  38. Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.198-199
  39. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.132-137
  40. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.136-137
  41. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.140-141
  42. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.153
  43. Palmer, Alan(1990). P.153-154
  44. Favier, Franck (2010). P.158
  45. Charles XIII at Encyclopædia Britannica
  46. Favier, Franck (2010). P.12
  47. (in Sv) Ancienneté och Rang-Rulla öfver Krigsmagten år 1813. 1813. https://books.google.com/books?id=4sN1NQEACAAJ.
  48. Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.245-246
  49. Erik Bjørnskau 1999 , p. 302
  50. Torvald T: son Höjer 1943, p. 69
  51. 51.0 51.1 Erik Bjørnskau 1999, p. 306-307
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  63. Beckman, Margareta, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte: från revolution soldier till Swedish Crown , Prisma, Stockholm, 2003. - ISBN 91-518-4084-7 (INB), p. 11
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  113. 113.0 113.1 new Swedish history 1810-1872, "Erik Lindorm 1979 ISBN 91-46-13374-7 s. 231
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  124. Ziegler, pp. 177–180.
  125. Allen, pp. 124, 130; Ziegler, pp. 189, 192.
  126. Molloy, pp. 72–73.
  127. Allen, p. 130 and Ziegler, p. 193.
  128. Sir Herbert Taylor, the King's secretary, writing to Lord Grey, 15 August 1831, quoted in Ziegler, p. 194.
  129. Allen, p. 132.
  130. Correspondence of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey with William IV and Sir Herbert Taylor, edited by Henry Grey, 3rd Earl Grey, (1867) 2.102, 113, quoted in Brock
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  177. Hyde, H. Montgomery (1970). The Love That Dared Not Speak its Name. London: Heinemann. pp. 43–44.
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  185. Northampton, who assumed the day-to-day running of government business, spoke of "the death of the little man for which so many rejoice and few do as much as seem to be sorry." Willson, p. 269.
  186. "Finances fell into chaos, foreign affairs became more difficult. James exalted a worthless favourite and increased the power of the Howards. As government relaxed and honour cheapened, we enter a period of decline and weakness, of intrigue, scandal, confusion and treachery." Willson, p. 333.
  187. Willson, pp. 334–335.
  188. Willson, p. 349; "Packets were sent, sometimes opened by my lord, sometimes unbroken unto Overbury, who perused them, registered them, made table-talk of them, as they thought good. So I will undertake the time was, when Overbury knew more of the secrets of state, than the council-table did." Sir Francis Bacon, speaking at Carr's trial. Quoted by Perry, p. 105.
  189. The commissioners judging the case reached a 5–5 verdict, so James quickly appointed two extra judges guaranteed to vote in favour, an intervention which aroused public censure. When, after the annulment, the son of Bishop Bilson, one of the added commissioners, was knighted, he was given the nickname "Sir Nullity Bilson". Lindley, p. 120.
  190. It is very likely that he was the victim of a 'set-up' contrived by the earls of Northampton and Suffolk, with Carr's complicity, to keep him out of the way during the annulment proceedings. Overbury knew too much of Carr's dealings with Frances and, motivated by a deep political hostility to the Howards, he opposed the match with a fervour that made him dangerous. It cannot have been difficult to secure James's compliance, because he disliked Overbury and his influence over Carr. Lindley, p. 145; John Chamberlain reported that the King "hath long had a desire to remove him from about the lord of Rochester, as thinking it a dishonour to him that the world should have an opinion that Rochester ruled him and Overbury ruled Rochester". Willson, p. 342.
  191. Lindley, p. 146; "Rumours of foul play involving Rochester and his wife with Overbury had, however, been circulating since his death. Indeed, almost two years later, in September 1615, and as James was in the process of replacing Rochester with a new favourite, George Villiers, the Governor of the Tower of London sent a letter to the king informing him that one of the warders in the days before Overbury had been found dead had been bringing the prisoner poisoned food and medicine." Barroll, p. 136.
  192. Croft, p. 91.
  193. "Probably no single event, prior to the attempt to arrest the five members in 1642, did more to lessen the general reverence with which royalty was regarded in England than this unsavoury episode." Davies, p. 20.
  194. Croft, pp. 98–99; Willson, p. 397.
  195. Stewart, pp. 140, 142.

Further reading

Bibliography

  • Ashley, Maurice P. Louis XIV And The Greatness Of France (1965) excerpt and text search
  • Beik, William. Louis XIV and Absolutism: A Brief Study with Documents (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Beik, William. "The Absolutism of Louis XIV as Social Collaboration." Past & Present 2005 (188): 195–224. online at Project MUSE
  • Bluche, François, Louis XIV, (Franklin Watts, 1990)
  • Template:Cite encyclopedia
  • Buckley, Veronica. Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV. London: Bloomsbury, 2008
  • Burke, Peter. The Fabrication of Louis XIV (1994) excerpt and text search
  • Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 5 The Age Of Louis XIV (1908), old, solid articles by scholars; complete text online
  • Campbell, Peter Robert. Louis XIV, 1661–1715 (London, 1993)
  • Church, William F., ed. The Greatness of Louis XIV. (1972).
  • Cowart, Georgia J. The Triumph of Pleasure: Louis XIV and the Politics of Spectacle (U of Chicago Press, 2008) 299 pp; focus on opera and ballet
  • Cronin, Vincent. Louis XIV. London: HarperCollins, 1996 (ISBN 0002720728)
  • Dunlop, Ian. Louis XIV (2000), 512pp excerpt and text search
  • Engerand, Fernand, editor (1899). Inventaire des tableaux du Roy rédigé en 1709 et 1710 par Nicolas Bailly. Paris: Ernest Leroux. Copy at Gallica.
  • Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV (Praeger 1970)
  • Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-297-82997-1); New York: Nan A. Talese, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-385-50984-7)
  • Goubert, Pierre. Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen (1972), social history from Annales School
  • Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XIV to Napoleon (1715–1799) (2002)
  • Lewis, W. H. The Splendid Century: Life in the France of Louis XIV (1953) excerpt and text search; also online complete edition
  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The Ancien Régime: A History of France 1610–1774 (1999), survey by leader of the Annales School excerpt and text search
  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714 (1999) excerpt and text search
  • Mitford, Nancy. The Sun King (1995), popular excerpt and text search
  • Nolan, Cathal J. Wars of the Age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization . (2008) 607pp; over 1000 entries; ISBN 978-0-313-33046-9
  • Rowlands, Guy. The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest, 1661–1701 (2002) online edition
  • Rubin, David Lee, ed. Sun King: The Ascendancy of French Culture during the Reign of Louis XIV. Washington: Folger Books and Cranbury: Associated University Presses, 1992.
  • Rule, John C., Louis XIV and the craft of kingship 1969.
  • Shennan, J. H. Louis XIV (1993) online edition
  • Thompson, Ian. The Sun King's Garden: Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre And the Creation of the Gardens of Versailles. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2006 ISBN 1-58234-631-3
  • Treasure, Geoffrey. Louis XIV (London, 2001).
  • Wilkinson, Rich. Louis XIV (2007)
  • Wolf, John B. Louis XIV (1968), the standard scholarly biography online edition

Historiography

External links

Template:Wikisource author

Charles XIV John of Sweden
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 26 January 1763 Died: 8 March 1840
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Stanislaus August II
Elector of Lithuania
12 February 1795 – 8 March 1840
Succeeded by
Oscar I
Preceded by
Charles XIII/II
King of Sweden and Norway
5 February 1818 – 8 March 1840
Succeeded by
Charles I
New title Prince of Pontecorvo
5 June 1806 – 21 August 1810
Vacant
Title next held by
Lucien Murat
Polish royalty
Preceded by
Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów
Duke of Radziłów and Lodz
12 February 1773 – 6 August 1810
Succeeded by
James Casimir I
Political offices
Preceded by
Louis Casimir Lewandowski
Governor of Podlaskie Voivodeship
2 July 1790 – 14 September 1809
Succeeded by
Charles Vasa Mazur

Template:Swedish princes Template:Monarchs of Norway Template:Monarchs of Sweden Template:MarshalsNapoleon Template:Napoleonic Wars Template:French Revolution navbox Template:French Directory Template:Recipients of the Grand Cross


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