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Duke's War of 1272
Civil War in Holy Roman Empire.jpg
Duke Frederick III of Lorraine (blue figure from the far left) was being treason and exile by Kaiser Conrad III (on the throne) with Queen Bartilmebis.
Date 1272–1274
Location Holy Roman Empire
Result Initial baronial success,
monarchic victory
Pro-monarchy forces Anti-monarchy forces
Commanders and leaders
Armoiries empereurs Lusignan.svg Rudolf I (WIA)
Blason Maison d'Ascanie.svg Otto III of Brandenburg #
Wappen Erzbistum Bremen.png Hildebold of Wunstorf
Wittelsbach Arms.svg Ludwig II the Stern
Wappen Habsburg AG.svg Rudolf of Habsburg
Coat of arms of the Archbishopric of Mainz (1250).svg Gerhard I von Daun-Kirberg
Blason Lorraine.svg Frederick of Lorraine
Rudolf I, Baron of Baden
and other barons

The Duke's War of 1272 (1272–1274) was a civil war in the Holy Roman Empire between the forces of a number of barons led by Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine against Royalist forces led by Prince Conrad (later Conrad IV, Holy Roman Emperor) in the name of Conrad III.


The reign of Conrad III is most remembered for the constitutional crisis in this period of civil strife, which was provoked ostensibly by Conrad III's demands for extra finances, but which marked a more general dissatisfaction with Conrad's methods of government on the part of the English barons, discontent which was exacerbated by widespread famine. While Conrad's popularity in the Holy Roman Empire and his home in England. Henry VII's brother, Henry III of England had also troubling crisis the same year.

German duke Frederick of Lorraine, Duke of Upper Lorraine, aad originally been one of the foreign upstarts so loathed by many lords as Conrad's foreign councillors, as well having inherited the title Duke of Upper Lorraine. Of course Frederick was allied with French–born Simon de Montfort to take over the government of the Plantagenet monarchs.

Of course Frederick become the Conrad's subjects when the Holy Roman Empire at war with Poland (1254–1258). Frederick become the leader of the rebellion on 1264, and which he was wanted the crown himself and change the imperial government to Charles III's government.

Course of the war

Frederick's claim to the Imperial throne brought Henry III disagreed with Frederick claim, as well King Béla IV of Hungary tell that Frederick's claim to the throne was unacceptable. The reactions to the other monarchs like Bolesław V the Chaste, High Duke of Poland and Conrad III's rival support Frederick claim and he thought he will bring alliance between Poland and the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick took over Nurnberg and claim it as it capital.

As Frederick's claim causing other barons supported Frederick's claim to be King of the Romans, but failed. Frederick failed to take Frankfurt. Frederick took München. By result, Conrad had no choice to take on Frederick.

On 21 June 1267, Conrad's army with loyal subjects re-gained Nuremberg, in few months after Frederick took Nuremberg from Conrad. While Frederick failed to take Frankfurt, which Charles told Conrad to re-take München on August 1267. Frederick also took Leipzig, Mariendorf and Koln. Conrad III and his son, and Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg defeated Baron Rudolf of Baden at the Battle of Zürch in 1268.

Prince Conrad (later Conrad IV, Holy Roman Emperor) took command in the Imperial army on 1 September 1268, and lead their army to attempted took re-take Baden, leading a successful, but lost a lot of men up to 150,000 men. Conrad III and his son, also named Conrad heard the news that Simon de Montfort was killed by his brother's loyal men at the Battle of Evesham. Now, Henry and his son, Edward requested Conrad for the assistance, which Conrad agreed. Henry and Edward took 500,000 men each and travel to Frankfurt.

Meanwhile in Poland, Henry Probus (later Henryk IV of Poland) of the Silesian Piasts allied with Conrad IIV to take the rebellions without the Boleslaw V's permission. Which recently, Henry was succeeded Henry III the White as Duke of Silesia-Wrocław on 3 December 1266 and become next monarch in Poland (which Boleslaw V's death in 1279). Henry and the Silesians Piasts pay homage to Conrad III which the Emperor accepted. The Silesians Piasts dukes, magnates and lords was given castles, such as Wien Castle, Goslar Castle and Brandenburg an der Havel of Brandenburg. This makes the alliance between the Plantagenet Holy Roman Emperors and Silesians Piasts.

Now in England, Henry III with his son, Edward, later Edward I supporting Conrad and land on the shores in Holy Roman Empire. Both Conrad and Henry III with Edward meet at the shores, he accepted Henry's support. Both English and Imperial armies rode and re-claim the territories of Leipzig, Mariendorf and Koln with the help of his royal friend, Margrave Otto III and in the name of Kaiser Conrad III. Frederick turns to Conrad's rival, Bolesław V the Chaste in Poland to gain the Imperial throne from Conrad, which Bolesław refused to do.

Last years of War and peace

Prince Conrad wounded and escaped at the Battle of Straßburg on 1268. Conrad in response took revenge and captured Baron Ludwig of Leipzing and put to trail of treason. Frederick went round two which failing took Frankfurt and Koln. King Bela helping Conrad.

Conrad defeated Frederick but manage to escaped at the Battle of Limburg in winter of 1269. Frederick and Conrad fighting at the Battle of Würzburg, Conrad was managed to defeated Frederick for the second time and Frederick was forced to exile to Polish Principalities on 2 March 1269.

The civil war ended with the Treaty of Nördlingen with half of the rebels subjects who sided with Frederick sided and returning to sided with Conrad III. And other half, faces treason, killed in action (in battles or sieges), or in exile.


See also


External links