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House of Radzilow
POL COA Radzilow.svg
Parent house Capetian Dynasty
Country Poland, Lithuania, Sweden, Norway, Italy, France, Naples, Radziłów, Belgium and Württemberg
Founded 1502
Founder Philip III, Duke of Radziłów
Final ruler Sigismund IV
Titles
Dissolution 2 September 1889
Cadet branches Radzilows of Württemberg

Radzilows of Poland

House of Radziłów [raˈd͡ʑiwuf], also spelled Radziłów was prominent Polish noble family. The first of founder was Bertrand Rapp-Hollande I. The first polish general who was a Winged Hussar named Charles II, Duke of Radzilow (1629-1696), also the ancestor of Emperor of Poland Charles III, Duke of Radzilow (1776-1869).

Coat of arms and motto

History

Counts of Habsburg

File:Schweiz Frühmia Adel.svg

The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern day Switzerland are shown as Template:Legend0, among the houses of Template:Legend0, Template:Legend0 and Template:Legend0

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. Most peopleTemplate:Who assume the name to be derived from the High German Habichtsburg (Hawk Castle), but some historians and linguists are convinced that the name comes from the Middle High German word "hab/hap" meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.[1][2][3] The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.[4]

Kings of the Polish

By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273 Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.[4]

In 1282, the Habsburgs gained the rulership of the Duchy of Austria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. Through the forged Privilegium Maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the House and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339–1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's descendants ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379.[4]

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397–1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans as Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades.

Holy Polish Emperors

File:Growth of Habsburg territories.jpg

Growth of the Habsburg Empire in Eastern Europe.

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the Electoral College to succeed Albert II as the king. After several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement.[4]

While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. In contrast to Frederick, who was rather distant to his family, Eleanor had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.[4]

As Emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from the Rhine to the Mur and Leitha.[4]

On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian.[4] The wedding, which took place on the evening of August 16, 1477, ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children, Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493.[5]

After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French, who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor," and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. In 1530 Emperor Charles V became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope.[5]

File:Habsburg Map 1547.jpg

A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, and particularly in America.

Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son, Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair), married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in America), Southern Italy, Austria and the Low Countries.[6]

The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother, Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter, Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe's political landscape. As all the children were still minors, the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, became the King of Bohemia.

By the time of Charles V the "World Emperor" and his "empire on which the sun never sets", the Habsburg dynasty achieved, for the first and only time in their history, the position of a true world power.

Division of the house: Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs

File:Habsburg dominions 1700.png

The Habsburg Dominions in 1700, not showing their overseas empire, but showing the division between the Spanish and Austrian branch with their losses and gains.

After the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I by his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516–1556), the dynasty split into the junior branch of the Austrian Habsburgs and the senior branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. The Austrian Habsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor after Charles' death in 1558, as well as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands and the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary.

The senior Spanish branch ruled over Spain, its Italian possessions and its colonial empire, the Netherlands, and, for a time (1580-1640), Portugal. Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683–1699.

In the secret Oñate treaty, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780.

Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages, it's known their proverb that 'The best spouse for an Habsburg is another Habsburg', with a cumulatively deleterious effect on their gene pool. Marriages between first cousins, or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled from birth, perhaps by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of "remote inbreeding".[7][8]

Extinction of the Austrian Habsburgs

The Austrian branch went extinct in the male person in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female person in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine[9] (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses), and their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

Habsburg-Lorraine

Austria-Hungary in 1915
300px
Kingdoms and countries of Austria-Hungary:
Cisleithania (Empire of Austria[10]): 1. Bohemia, 2. Bukovina, 3. Carinthia, 4. Carniola, 5. Dalmatia, 6. Galicia, 7. Küstenland, 8. Lower Austria, 9. Moravia, 10. Salzburg, 11. Silesia, 12. Styria, 13. Tirol, 14. Upper Austria, 15. Vorarlberg;
Transleithania (Kingdom of Hungary[10]): 16. Hungary proper 17. Croatia-Slavonia; 18. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austro-Hungarian condominium)

On August 6, 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804.

Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria".

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a personal union, whereby the House of Habsburg agreed to share power with the separate Hungarian government, dividing the territory of the former Austrian Empire between them. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status[11] Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see k. u. k.). This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.

On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, Emperor Charles' eldest son, renounced all claims to the throne.

The dynasty's motto, "Leave the waging of wars to others! But you, happy Austria, marry; for the realms which Mars awards to others, Venus transfers to you.",[12] indicates the knack of the Habsburgs to have members intermarry into other royal houses in order to build alliances and inherit territory. Empress Maria Theresa is recognized quite notably for it and is sometimes referred to as the "Great-Grandmother of Europe".[citation needed]

Notable members

Portrait Name Born Died Relationship with predecessor Notes
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg Philip I 1502 1524 Phillip II
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg Charles I, Duke of Radziłów 1500 1548 Philip III, Duke of Radziłów
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg Philip II 1567 1624 Phillip II
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg Philip III, Duke of Radziłów 1607 1693 Phillip II
Jacob Bull 012, Charles Percy Elector of Radziłów.jpg Charles II, Duke of Radzilow 25 October 1634 4 June 1693 Casimir IV, Duke of Radzilow
Maria of Lodz
70px Christopher IV John of Denmark
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg Philip III, Duke of Radziłów 1691 1714 Phillip II
Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów.jpg Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów 7 June 1732 10 May 1784 Phillip II
Charles I, duc de Radziłów - Google Art Project.jpg Charles V, Duke of Radziłów
(1765–1844)
(later King of Sweden and Norway)
10 May 1784 18 July 1795 Son of
Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów
Becomes the first King of Sweden and Norway of the House of Radzilow.
70px Charles D. Radzilowski 1771 1858 Eldest son of King James Casimir I, King of the Polish 4th President of Poland (1845-53)
Charles Philippe (1781-1846) by Dawe 1818-19.jpg Crown Prince Louis-Philippe d'Radziłów 6 October 1784 8 June 1850 Youngest son of King James Casimir I, King of the Polish French soldier and politician, known as the "Dragoon Prince", he wounded 5 times at the Battle of Caldiero in 1805, was the first President of Poland from 1829 to 1837, only two terms.

List of Dukes of Radzilow and Lodz

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip I
1502–1524
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg 1487 None May 1524 (aged 36–37)
Krakow
Charles I, Duke of Radziłów
1524 – 1548
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg 1500 None 1548
Philip II
1548–1624
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg 1567 None 1624
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg Philip III, Duke of Radziłów
1624 None 1705
Charles II, Duke of Radzilow
25 October 1634 – 4 June 1693
100px 25 October 1634 4 June 1693 Casimir IV, Duke of Radzilow
Maria of Lodz
Charles III, Duke of Radzilow
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I as Holy Polish Emperor (1801-1858).svg Philip III, Duke of Radziłów 1691 1714 Phillip II
Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów
1 October 1737 – 12 February 1773
Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów.jpg 7 June 1735
Fort-la-Latte
son of Charles IV, Duke of Radzilow and Maria of Radzilow
Maria Elizabeth of Lodz
Krakow
six children
27 March 1813
Krakow
aged 77
Charles V, Duke of Radziłów
12 February 1773 – 6 August 1844
Charles XIV John de Radziłów.jpg 29 May 1765
Fort-la-Latte
son of Maximilian I and Maria Elizabeth of Lodz
Désirée Clary
Sceaux
seven children
6 October 1844
Drottningholm Palace
aged 79

List of Monarchs

These monarchs used the title "King of Poland and Lithuania", although that title had no basis in law until the Union of Kraków and Vilna came into effect on 1 May 1819. Legally, they each simultaneously occupied two thrones, as "King/Queen of Poland" and "King/Queen of Lithuania". Sometimes they used the title "King of the Poles", or "King of the Polish".

Kings of Poland and Lithuania

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor
Erik (Wahlberg) Wahlbergson - Casimir V, King of Poland and Duke of Lithuania 1795-1846 - Google Art Project.PNG Casimir V 18 April 1795 19 February 1852 son of Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów and Maria Elizabeth of Lodz. Brother of King Charles XIV and III John of Sweden.
CarlIIPoland-R.JPG Charles II of Poland
and
John V of Lithuania
19 May 1857 21 October 1877 son of Casimir V and Josephine of Leuchtenberg . He was later changed his title to "King of the Polish". He was a nephew of Charles I.
Sigismund IV, Prince of Radzilow.jpg Sigismund IV 21 October 1877 22 March 1889 son of Casimir V and Josephine of Leuchtenberg. He known as the Mad he was King of Poland from 1877 to his assassination of 1889.

Kings of Sweden and Norway

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor
Nordgren - Portrait de Charles XIV, roi de Suede.jpg Charles XIV/III John 14 February 1818 8 March 1844 son of Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów and Maria Elizabeth of Lodz. King of Sweden and Norway, 1818–1844, he known as the Union King, and the Great.
Erik (Wahlberg) Wahlbergson - Oscar I, King of Sweden and Norway 1844-1859 - Google Art Project.jpg Oscar I 8 March 1844 8 July 1859 son of Charles XIV John of Sweden and Désirée Clary. King of Sweden and Norway, 1844–1859, he reign last for 15 years. Succeeded by his son, Charles XV.
Carl XV of Sweden c 1863 (1826-1872).jpg Charles XV/IV 8 July 1859 18 September
1872
son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg. King of Sweden and Norway, 1859–1872. He was Succeeding by his brother, Oscar II.
100px Oscar II 18 September 1872 8 December 1907 son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg. King of Sweden, from 1872–1907, and King of Norway from 1872 to he dethroned in 1905. He was Succeeded by his brother, Charles XV/IV.

See also

Notes

  1. "Habsburger-Gedenkjahr im Aargau", Neue Zürcher Zeitung, (page 17) 23 May 2008.
  2. art-tv.ch
  3. "Kanton Aargau" (in de). Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081223234043/http://www.ag.ch/staatsarchiv/de/pub/fokus/habsburger_gedenkjahr.php.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN 3-406-44754-6.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Erbe, Michael: Die Habsburger 1493-1918. Eine Dynastie im Reich und in Europa. W. Kohlhammer, 2000. ISBN 3-17-011866-8
  6. Great Events from History, The Renaissance & Early Modern Era, Vol I, p. 112–114, author-Clare Callaghan, ISBN 1-58765-214-5.
  7. Gonzalo Alvarez, Francisco C. Ceballos, Celsa Quinteiro, Gonzalo; Ceballos, Francisco C.; Quinteiro, Celsa; Bauchet, Marc (April 15, 2009). Bauchet, Marc. ed. "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLoS ONE (PLoS ONE) 4 (4): e5174. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005174. PMC 2664480. PMID 19367331. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005174. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
  8. FC Ceballos, G Alvarez (2013). "Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs". Heredity 111 (2): 114–121. doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.25. PMID 23572123.
  9. Maria Theresa was originally engaged to Léopold Clément of Lorraine, older brother of Francis Stephan.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Britannica 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Austria-Hungary. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  11. Microsoft Encarta: The height of the dual monarchy
  12. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: Comprehensive Volume. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003. 330. Print.

Further reading

  • Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia. Clearfield, 1996.
  • Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (first published by Longmans in 1963)
  • Evans, Robert J. W. The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation. Clarendon Press, 1979.
  • McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. The Habsburgs. Doubleday, 1966.
  • Palmer, Alan. Napoleón and Marie Louise Ariel Mexico, 2003.
  • Wandruszka, Adam. The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Press, 1975).

External links

House of Radziłów
Preceded by
House of Oldenburg
(Holstein-Gottorp branch)
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Sweden
1818–1950
Succeeded by
House of Bernadotte
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Norway
1818–1905
Succeeded by
House of Oldenburg
(Glücksburg branch)

Template:Royal houses of Europe

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