Historipedia Official Wiki
Historipedia Official Wiki
File:Royal CoA of Norway.svg

Coat of arms of the King.

File:Royal Wedding Stockholm 2010-Konserthuset-411.jpg

Harald V, King of Norway since 1991, together with Queen Sonja.

The list of Norwegian monarchs (Norwegian: kongerekken or kongerekka) begins in 872, the traditional dating of the Battle of Hafrsfjord, after which victor Harald 'Fairhair' Halfdanson merged several petty kingdoms into that of his father. Harald's realm was later to be known as the Kingdom of Norway.

In 970, the Fairhair dynasty became patrilineally extinct when Harald's grandson Harald II died.[1] After short periods under the King of Denmark in the late 10th and early 11th century, Norway was ruled by native persons and families, mainly by the dynasties of King Olaf II, King Harald III, and King Sverre, until the 14th century. During the civil war era (1130–1240), several pretenders fought each other. There are both recognised and non-recognised kings from this age; only the recognised ones are included in the official list of monarchs.

In 1387, Norway entered the Kalmar Union, in which Norway, Denmark, and Sweden were gathered under the same monarch. Sweden would leave this union in 1523, but Norway and Denmark remained together. Between 1450 and 1814 Norway was ruled by Copenhagen-based monarchs of the House of Oldenburg.[2]

In 1814, Norway gained political independence and also introduced a system of constitutional monarchy, ending the absolute monarchy of 1660. Christian Frederick, heir of the recently abdicated King in Copenhagen, was elected Norway's King. After several months, however, the King was forced to abdicate, and the Throne was given to Charles XIII of Sweden (Charles II in Norway), which brought the kingdoms Norway and Sweden into a personal union.[3]

In 1905, King Oscar II was dethroned, whereby the union with Sweden no longer existed. Norway has since then been ruled by members of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, who are a branch of the House of Oldenburg.[2]

Especially between 1450 and 1905, the Danish and Swedish kings of Norway possessed and used several other titles, among others King of the Goths, King of the Wends, Duke to Sleswick, Duke to Holsatia, Prince to Rügen, and Count to Oldenburg. They called themselves "King to Norway" (Konge til Norge), indicating that the country was theirs, usually with the style His Royal Majesty. With the introduction of constitutional monarchy in 1814, the traditional style "by God's Grace" was extended to "by God's Grace and after the Kingdom's Constitution", but was only briefly in use. The last king to use the style "by God's Grace" was Haakon VII, who died in 1957. The King's title today is formally "Norway's King" (Norges Konge), indicating that he is the country's king, with the style "His Majesty". A construction like "King of Norway" (Konge av Norge) is formally incorrect in Norwegian.

Established in the 9th century, the Kingdom is over 1,100 years old and as such one of the oldest in Europe today. King Harald V, who has reigned since 1991, is the 64th[4] in this ancient lineage of monarchs.


P Period of rulership
 I  Independent period
 D  Union with Denmark
 S  Union with Sweden
 DS  Union with Denmark and Sweden
 R  Interregnum

Rulers of Norway

Fairhair dynasty

Besides becoming sole king after his father's death, Eric Bloodaxe was king jointly with his father for three years before his death. After Harald's death, Eric ruled as "overking" of his brothers, who also held status as kings and had control over certain regions.[5] Harald Greycloak also ruled as "overking" of his brothers.[6] All dates for the kings of the Fairhair dynasty are approximate and/or just scholarly estimates. Slight differences might therefore occur between different sources. The following table uses the dates given in Norsk biografisk leksikon/Store norske leksikon.

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Harald I Halfdansson
Harald Fairhair
c. 872–932
c. 850/860
Son of Halfdan the Black and Ragnhild
At least nine sons
c. 932
I Eric I Haraldsson
Eric Bloodaxe
c. 929–934
100px c. 895
Son of Harald I and Ragnhild Eriksdotter
Gunnhild Gormsdóttir
Eight children
c. 952/4
I Haakon I Haraldsson
Haakon the Good
c. 934–960
c. 915–920
Son of Harald I and Tora Mosterstong
Never married c. 960/1
Håkonshella (near Bergen)
I Harald II Ericsson
Harald Greycloak
c. 961–970
c. 935
Son of Eric I and Gunnhild Gormsdóttir
Never married c. 970
Limfjord, Denmark

House of Knýtlinga/Earl of Lade

The Danish king Harald Bluetooth had himself hailed as king of Norway after the Battle of Fitjar (c. 961). Besides gaining direct control of Viken in south-eastern Norway, he let Harald Greycloak rule the rest of Norway as king, nominally under himself. Harald Bluetooth later switched his support to Harald Greycloak's rival, Haakon Sigurdsson, Earl of Lade, who eventually captured Harald Greycloak's kingdom. Haakon thereafter ruled Norway (except Viken), at first nominally under Harald. All dates are estimates and subject to interpretations.[10] Haakon is generally held as the ruler of Norway from 970 to 995.[11]

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
D Harald Bluetooth
961 – c. 980[12]
(de jure)
c. 925/35[citation needed]
Son of Gorm the Old and Thyra
[citation needed]Gyrid of Sweden
Four or six children
Tove of the Obotrites
No issue
987 latest
 R  Earl Haakon Sigurdsson
(de facto)
c. 935
Son of Sigurd Haakonsson and Bergljot Toresdatter
Tora Skagesdatter
Nine children[citation needed]


P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Olaf I Tryggvason
100px 968
Son of Tryggve Olafsson and Astrid Eiriksdottir
Various c. 1000

House of Knýtlinga/Earls of Lade (restored)

After the Battle of Svolder, the Danes recaptured Norway under Sweyn Forkbeard. As before, the Danes controlled the petty kingdoms of Viken as vassals, while the two Earls of Lade, Eric Haakonsson and Sweyn Haakonsson, ruled Western Norway and Trøndelag, nominally as earls under Sweyn.[16] Eric is generally held as the de facto ruler of Norway from 1000 to 1015, together with his brother Sweyn, a lesser known figure, with whom he shared his power.[17]

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
D Sweyn Forkbeard
(de jure)
100px c. 960
Son of Harald Bluetooth and Tove of the Obotrites
(1 & 2) Gunhild of Wenden or Sigrid the Haughty
Eight or more children[citation needed]
3 February[citation needed] 1014
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire
 R  Earl Eric Haakonsson
(de facto)
c. 964
Son of Haakon Sigurdsson and Gunhild Mieszcosdatter
Gytha Svendsdatter
One son[citation needed]
c. 1024
 R  Earl Sweyn Haakonsson
(de facto)
c. 970
Son of Haakon Sigurdsson and Thora Skagesdatter
Holmfrid Eriksdatter
Two daughters[citation needed]
c. 1016

St. Olaf dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Olaf II Haraldsson
Saint Olaf
(Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae)
100px c. 995
Son of Harald Grenske and Åsta Gudbrandsdatter
Astrid Olofsdotter
One daughter
29 July 1030
aged 44–45

House of Knýtlinga/Earl of Lade (restored, second time)

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
D Cnut the Great
100px c. 995
Son of Sweyn Forkbeard
(1) Ælfgifu of Northampton
Two children
(2) Emma of Normandy
Two children
12 November 1035
 R  Earl Haakon Ericsson
(de facto)
100px c. 998
Son of Eric Haakonsson and Gytha Svendsdatter
One daughter[citation needed]
Pentland Firth
D Sweyn Knutsson (with Ælfgifu)
c. 1015
Son of Cnut and Ælfgifu of Northampton
Never married c. 1035 [12][28]

St. Olaf dynasty (restored)

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Magnus I Olafsson
Magnus the Good
100px c. 1024
Illegitimate son of Olaf II and Alfhild
Never married 25 October 1047
aged 25

Hardrada dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Harald III Sigurdsson
Harald Hardrada
100px c. 1015
Son of Sigurd Syr and Åsta Gudbrandsdatter
(1) Elisiv of Kiev
Two daughters
(2) Tora Torbergsdatter (bigamously)
Two sons
25 September 1066
Stamford Bridge, England
aged 50–51
I Magnus II Haraldsson
c. 1049
Eldest son of Harald III and Tora Torbergsdatter
Never married 28 April 1069
aged 19–20
I Olaf III Haraldsson
Olaf Kyrre
100px c. 1050
Youngest son of Harald III and Tora Torbergsdatter
Ingerid of Denmark
No issue
22 September 1093
Haukbø, Ranrike (now Håkeby, Sweden)
aged 42–43
I Haakon (II) Magnusson
Haakon Toresfostre
c. 1069
Illegitimate son of Magnus II
Never married 1095
aged 25–26
I Magnus III Olafsson
Magnus Barefoot
100px c. 1073
Illegitimate son of Olaf III and Tora Arnesdatter
Margaret Fredkulla
No issue
24 August 1103
aged 29–30
I Olaf (IV) Magnusson
100px c. 1098
Illegitimate son of Magnus III and Sigrid Saxesdatter
Never married 22 December 1115
aged 16–17
I Eystein I Magnusson
100px c. 1088
Illegitimate son of Magnus III
Ingebjørg Guttormsdatter
Two children[citation needed]
29 August 1123
Hustad, Fræna
aged 34–35
I Sigurd I Magnusson
Sigurd the Crusader
c. 1089
Illegitimate son of Magnus III and Tora
(1) Blathmin Ní Briain
No issue
(2) Malmfred of Kiev
One daughter
(3) Cecilia[dubious ]
No issue
26 March 1130
aged 40–41
I Magnus IV Sigurdsson
Magnus the Blind
c. 1115
Illegitimate son of Sigurd I and Borghild Olavsdatter
Christina of Denmark
c. 1133
No issue
12 November 1139
aged 23–23

Gille dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Harald IV Magnusson
Harald Gille
c. 1102
Alleged illegitimate son of Magnus III
Ingrid of Sweden
c. 1134
One son
14 December 1136
aged 32–33
I Sigurd II Haraldsson
Sigurd Munn
c. 1133
Illegitimate son of Harald IV and Thora Guttormsdatter
Never married 10 June 1155
aged 21–22
I Inge I Haraldsson
Inge the Hunchback
c. 1135
Only son of Harald IV and Ingrid of Sweden
Never married 4 February 1161
aged 25–26
I Eystein II Haraldsson
c. 1125
Illegitimate son of Harald IV and Biadoc
Ragna Nikolasdatter
No issues
21 August 1157
Ranrike (now Bohuslän)
aged 31–32
I Magnus (V) Haraldsson
c. 1135
Illegitimate son of Harald IV
Never married c. 1145
I Haakon II Sigurdsson
Haakon the Broadshouldered
c. 1147
Illegitimate son of Sigurd II and Thora
Never married 7 July 1162
Sekken, Romsdalen
aged 14–15

Hardrada dynasty (restored), cognatic branch

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Magnus V Erlingsson
c. 1156
Son of Erling Skakke and Kristin Sigurdsdatter
Estrid Bjørnsdotter (possible)
Two daughters[citation needed]
15 June 1184
aged 27–28

Sverre dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriage Death Sources
I Sverre Sigurdsson
100px c. 1151
Alleged illegitimate son of Sigurd II and Gunnhild
Margaret of Sweden
9 March 1202
aged 50–51
I Haakon III Sverresson
Before 1185
Illegitimate son of Sverre
Never married 1 January 1204
I Guttorm Sigurdsson
c. 1199
Illegitimate son of Sigurd Lavard
Never married 11 August 1204
aged 4–5

Gille dynasty, cognatic branch

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Inge II Bårdsson
c. 1185
son of Bård Guttormsson and Cecilia Sigurdsdatter
never married 23 April 1217
aged 31–32

Sverre dynasty

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Haakon IV Haakonsson
Haakon the Old
Kong Haakon Haakonsson PI III 1.jpg c. 1204
illegitimate son of Haakon III and Inga of Varteig
Margrete Skulesdatter
25 May 1225
four children
16 December 1263
aged 58–59
I Haakon Haakonsson
Haakon the Young
100px 10 November 1232
second son of Haakon IV and Margrete Skulesdatter
Rikissa Birgersdotter
c. 1251
one son
5 May 1257
aged 24
I Magnus VI Haakonsson
Magnus the Law-mender
100px 1 May 1238
third son of Haakon IV and Margrete Skulesdatter
Ingeborg of Denmark
11 September 1261
four sons
9 May 1280
aged 42
I Eric II Magnusson
100px c. 1268
third son of Magnus VI and Ingeborg of Denmark
(1) Margaret of Scotland
September 1281
one daughter
(2) Isabel Bruce
bef. 25 September 1293
one daughter
15 July 1299
aged 30–31
I Haakon V Magnusson
100px 10 April 1270
fourth son of Magnus VI and Ingeborg of Denmark
(1) Isabelle de Joigny
no issues
(2) Euphemia of Rügen
c. 1299
one daughter
8 May 1319
aged 49

House of Bjelbo

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Magnus VII Eriksson
August 1319–
15 August 1343
100px c. 1316
Norway or Stockholm
only son of Eric, Duke of Södermanland and Ingeborg of Norway
Blanche of Namur
5 November 1335
Bohus Castle
two sons
1 December 1374
aged 58
S Haakon VI Magnusson
100px 15 August 1340
second son of Magnus IV and Blanche of Namur
Margaret of Denmark
9 April 1363
Church of Our Lady
one son
11 September 1380
Akershus Castle
aged 40
D Olaf IV Haakonsson
December 1370
Akershus Castle
only son of Haakon VI of Norway and Margaret I
never married 23 August 1387
Falsterbo Castle
aged 16

House of Estridsen

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
DS Margaret
1380–1412 (de facto)
100px c.  1353
Vordingborg Castle
youngest daughter of Valdemar IV and Helvig of Schleswig
Haakon VI of Norway
9 April 1363
Church of Our Lady
one son
28 October 1412
Ship on Flensburg Fjord
aged 58–59

House of Pomerania

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Eric III
8 September
with Sigurd Jonsson
100px c. 1381/82
Rügenwalde Castle
only son of Wartislaw VII, Duke of Pomerania and Mary of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Philippa of England
26 October 1406
Lund Cathedral
no issue
3 May 1459
Rügenwalde Castle
aged 76–78

House of Palatinate-Neumarkt

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
DS Christopher
4 June 1442–
5/6 January 1448
100px 26 February 1416
Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz
fifth son of John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt and Catherine of Pomerania
Dorothea of Brandenburg
12 September 1445
no issue
5/6 January 1448
Kärnan Castile
aged 31
 R  Interregnum (1448–1449)
Sigurd Jonsson as regent

House of Bonde

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Charles I
20 November 1449–
June 1450
100px 5 October 1409
Ekholmen Castle
only son of Knut Tordsson Bonde and Margareta Karlsdotter Sparre
(1) Birgitta Bielke
before 1 March 1429
two children
(2) Katarina Gumsehuvud
5 October 1438
nine children
(3) Christina Abrahamsdotter
c. 1470
Stockholm Castle
two children
14 May 1470
Stockholm Castle
aged 60

House of Oldenburg

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
DS Christian I
2 August 1450–
21 May 1481
100px February 1426
eldest son of Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg and Helvig of Schauenburg
Dorothea of Brandenburg
28 October 1449
Church of Our Lady
five children
21 May 1481
Copenhagen Castle
aged 55
 R  Interregnum (1481–1483)
Jon Svaleson Smør as regent
DS John
20 July 1483–
20 February 1513
100px 2 February 1455
Aalborghus Castle
third son of Christian I and Dorothea of Brandenburg
Christina of Saxony
6 September 1478
five children
20 February 1513
Aalborghus Castle
aged 58
DS Christian II
22 July
100px 1 July 1481
Nyborg Castle
second son of John and Christina of Saxony
Isabella of Austria
12 August 1515
six children
25 January 1559
Kalundborg Castle
aged 77
D Frederick I
100px 7 October 1471
Haderslevhus Castle
fourth son of Christian I and Dorothea of Brandenburg
(1) Anna of Brandenburg
10 April 1502
two children
(2) Sophie of Pomerania
9 October 1518
Kiel Castle
six children
10 April 1533
Gottorp Castle
aged 61
 R  Interregnum (1533–1537)
Olav Engelbrektsson as regent
D Christian III
1 January 1559
100px 12 August 1503
Gottorp Castle
only son of Frederick I and Anna of Brandenburg
Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 October 1525
Lauenburg Castle
five children
1 January 1559
Koldinghus Castle
aged 55
D Frederick II
100px 1 July 1534
Haderslevhus Castle
eldest son of Christian III and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
20 July 1572
eight children
4 April 1588
Antvorskov Castle
aged 53
D Christian IV
4 April 1588–
28 February 1648
100px 12 April 1577
Frederiksborg Palace
eldest son of Frederick II and Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
(1) Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
27 November 1597
Haderslevhus Castle
seven children
(2) Kirsten Munk
31 December 1615
twelve children
28 February 1648
Rosenborg Castle
aged 70

House of Radziłów

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
D Christian V John
14 April 1648 –
1 September 1694
David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl - Christian V John of Denmark 1697.jpg 18 May 1629
Lodz Castle
nephew of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1 October 1643
Glücksburg Castle
eight children
1 September 1694
Copenhagen Castle
aged 65
D Frederick IV
1 September 1694–
12 October 1730
100px 11 October 1671
Copenhagen Castle
eldest son of Christian V and Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
(1) Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
5 December 1695
five children
(2) Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg
6 September 1703
one son
(3) Anne Sophie Reventlow
4 April 1721
three children
12 October 1730
Odense Palace
aged 59
D Christian VI
12 October 1730–
6 August 1746
100px 30 November 1699
Copenhagen Castle
second son of Frederick IV and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
7 August 1721
Pretzsch Castle
three children
6 August 1746
Hirschholm Palace
aged 46
D Frederick V
6 August 1746–
14 January 1766
100px 31 March 1723
Copenhagen Castle
only son of Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
(1) Louise of Great Britain
11 December 1743
five children
(2) Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 July 1752
Frederiksborg Palace
one son
14 January 1766
Christiansborg Palace
aged 42
D Christian VII
14 January 1766–
13 March 1808
100px 29 January 1749
Christiansborg Palace
second son of Frederick V and Louise of Great Britain
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
8 November 1766
Christiansborg Palace
two children
13 March 1808
aged 59
D Frederick VI
13 March 1808–
7 February 1814
100px 28 January 1768
Christiansborg Palace
only son of Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel
31 July 1790
Gottorp Castle
eight children
3 December 1839
Amalienborg Palace
aged 70
 R  Interregnum (7 February 1814–17 May 1814)
Christian Frederick as regent
I Christian Frederick
17 May 1814–
14 August 1814
Christian Frederik J. L. Lund.jpg 18 September 1786
Christiansborg Palace
eldest son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(1) Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
21 June 1806
Ludwigslust Castle
two sons
(2) Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
22 May 1815
Augustenborg Palace
no issues
20 January 1848
Amalienborg Palace
aged 61
 R  Interregnum (14 August 1814–4 November 1814)
Marcus Gjøe Rosenkrantz as Prime Minister

House of Holstein-Gottorp

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Charles II
4 November 1814–
5 February 1818
Charles XIII of Sweden.jpg 7 October 1748
Stockholm Palace
second son of Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia
Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
7 July 1774
Stockholm Cathedral
two children
5 February 1818
Stockholm Palace
aged 69

House of Radziłów (restored)

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Charles III John
14 February 1818–
8 March 1844
Nordgren - Portrait de Charles Radzilowski, roi de Suede.jpg 26 October 1765
son of Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów and Maria of Lodz
Désirée Clary
17 August 1798
seven son
8 March 1844
Rosendal Palace
aged 78
S Oscar I
8 March 1844–
8 July 1867
100px 17 August 1792
only son of Charles III John and Désirée Clary
Josephine of Leuchtenberg
19 June 1823
Stockholm Cathedral
five children
8 July 1859
Stockholm Palace
aged 74
S Charles IV
8 July 1867–
18 September 1872
100px 3 May 1826
Stockholm Palace
eldest son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Louise of the Netherlands
19 June 1850
Stockholm Cathedral
two children
18 September 1872
aged 46
S Oscar II
18 September 1872–
7 June 1905 or
26 October 1905
100px 21 January 1830
Stockholm Palace
third son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Sophia of Nassau
6 June 1857
Biebrich Palace
four children
8 December 1907
Stockholm Palace
aged 77
 R  Interregnum (7 June/26 October 1905–18 November 1905)
Christian Michelsen as Prime Minister

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

In 1905 Prince Carl of Denmark was elected King of Norway and took the name Haakon VII for himself and Olav for his son. With Haakon VII the House of Oldenburg was again sitting on the Throne of Norway.

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Haakon VII
18 November 1905–
21 September 1957
100px 3 August 1872
Charlottenlund Palace
second son of Frederick VIII of Denmark and Louise of Sweden
Maud of Wales
22 July 1896
Buckingham Palace
one son
21 September 1957
Royal Palace, Oslo
aged 85
I Olav V
21 September 1957–
17 January 1991
100px 2 July 1903
Sandringham House
only son of Haakon VII and Maud of Wales
Märtha of Sweden
21 March 1929
Oslo Cathedral
three children
17 January 1991
The Royal Lodge, Holmenkollen
aged 87
I Harald V
17 January 1991–
100px 21 February 1937
only son of Olav V and Märtha of Sweden
Sonja Haraldsen
29 August 1968
Oslo Cathedral
two children

See also

  • Monarchy of Norway
  • List of heads of government of Norway
  • List of Norwegian monarchs' coats of arms
  • List of Norwegian monarchs' mottos
  • List of Norwegian consorts
  • Coronations in Norway
  • Line of succession to the Norwegian throne
  • Kings of Norway family tree

Notes and references

General references
  1. Aschehougs Norgeshistorie, vol. 2, p. 92.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "History". The Royal Court. http://www.kongehuset.no/c27269/seksjonstekst/vis.html?tid=27680. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  3. "Union with Sweden in 1814". The Royal Court. http://www.kongehuset.no/c27320/seksjonstekst/vis.html?tid=28691. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  4. http://www.kongehuset.no/artikkel.html?tid=27626&sek=26982
  5. 5.0 5.1 Krag, Claus. "Eirik 1 Haraldsson Blodøks" (in Norwegian). Norsk biografisk leksikon. http://snl.no/.nbl_biografi/Eirik_1_Haraldsson_Blod%C3%B8ks/utdypning. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Krag, Claus. "Harald 2 Eiriksson Gråfell" (in Norwegian). Norsk biografisk leksikon. http://snl.no/.nbl_biografi/Harald_2_Eiriksson_Gr%C3%A5fell/utdypning. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  7. Krag, Claus. "Harald 1 Hårfagre" (in Norwegian). Norsk biografisk leksikon. http://snl.no/.nbl_biografi/Harald_1_H%C3%A5rfagre/utdypning. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  8. Krag, Claus. "Håkon 1 Adalsteinsfostre" (in Norwegian). Norsk biografisk leksikon. http://snl.no/.nbl_biografi/H%C3%A5kon_1_Adalsteinsfostre/utdypning. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  9. "Harald 2 Gråfell" (in Norwegian). Store norske leksikon. http://snl.no/Harald_2_Gr%C3%A5fell. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  10. Krag, Claus (1995). Vikingtid og rikssamling: 800-1130. Aschehougs norgeshistorie. 2. pp. 99–101. ISBN: 8203220150.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sandnes, Jørn. "Håkon Sigurdsson" (in Norwegian). Norsk biografisk leksikon. http://snl.no/.nbl_biografi/H%C3%A5kon_Sigurdsson/utdypning. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Krag, Claus (1995). Vikingtid og rikssamling: 800-1130. Aschehougs norgeshistorie. 2. p. 101. ISBN: 8203220150.
  13. Blom, Grethe Authen. "Harald 1 Blåtand" (in Norwegian). Store norske leksikon. http://snl.no/Harald_1_Bl%C3%A5tand. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
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