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The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria. Bavaria was ruled by several dukes and kings, partitioned and reunited, under several dynasties. Since 1949, Bavaria has been a democratic state in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Dynastic overview

Agilolfing dynasty, 548–788

      Agilolfing dynasty

Around 548 the kings of the Franks placed the border region of Bavaria under the administration of a duke — possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families — who was supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king. The first duke we know of, and likely the first, was Gariwald, or Garibald I, a member of the powerful Agilolfing family. This was the beginning of a series of Agilolfing dukes that was to last until 788.

Carolingian dynasty, 788–911

      Carolingian dynasty

The Kings (later Emperors) of the Franks now assumed complete control, placing Bavaria under the rule of non-hereditary governors and civil servants. They were not Dukes but rather Kings of Bavaria. The Emperor Louis the Pious divided control of the Empire among his sons, and the divisions became permanent in the decades following his death in 840. The Frankish rulers controlled Bavaria as part of their possessions.

Luitpolding dynasty, 911–947

      Luitpolding dynasty

Luitpold, founder of the Luitpolding dynasty, was not a Duke of Bavaria but a Margrave of Carinthia under the rule of Louis the Child. Frankish power had waned in the region due to Hungarian attacks, allowing the local rulers greater independence. Luitpold's son, Arnulf, claimed the title of Duke (implying full autonomy) in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler in 920.

German kings, 947–1070

      Ottonian dynasty       Salian dynasty

From 947 until the 11th century, the kings of Germany repeatedly transferred Bavaria into different hands (including their own), never allowing any one family to establish itself. Bavaria was ruled by a series of short-lasting, mostly unrelated dynasties.

Houses of Welf and Babenberg, 1070–1180

      Houses of Welf and Babenberg

In 1070, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed duke Otto, granting the duchy instead to Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, a member of the Italo-Bavarian family of Este. Welf I subsequently quarreled with King Henry and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown. Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096, and was succeeded by his sons Welf II and Henry IX — the latter was succeeded by his son Henry X, who also became Duke of Saxony.

Wittelsbach dynasty, 1180–1918

File:Wappen Deutsches Reich - Königreich Bayern (Grosses).jpg
      Wittelsbach dynasty

In 1180, Henry XII the Lion and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, fell out, and Frederick dispossessed the duke and gave his territory to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach. Bavaria remained in the possession of various branches of the family until the First World War.

First partition, 1253–1340

In 1253, on Otto II's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers, making the Dukes difficult to list.

In Lower Bavaria, Henry XIII was succeeded by his three sons, Otto III, Louis III, and Stephen I ruling jointly. Otto III's successor in the joint dukedom was his son Henry XV. Stephen's successors were his sons Otto IV and Henry XIV. Henry XIV's son was John I.

In Upper Bavaria, Louis II was succeeded by his sons Rudolf I and Louis IV. The latter was elected King of Germany in 1314. After John I's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.

The dukes of Upper Bavaria served also as Counts Palatinate of the Rhine. In 1329 Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. The Upper Palatinate would be reunited with Bavaria in 1623, the Lower Palatinate in 1777.

Second partition 1349–1503

From 1349 until 1503 the second partition of Bavaria took place. In 1349, the six sons of Louis IV partitioned Bavaria into Upper and Lower Bavaria again. In 1353, Lower Bavaria was partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing. Upper Bavaria was partitioned between Bavaria-Straubing and Bavaria-Landshut in 1363. After the death of Stephan II in 1392, Bavaria-Landshut was broken into three duchies, John II, Duke of Bavaria gained Bavaria-Munich, Frederick, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut received a smaller Bavaria-Landshut, and in Bavaria-Ingolstadt ruled Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria.

1349–1363
Duchy of Lower Bavaria
In 1353, Lower Bavaria was partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing.
Duchy of Upper Bavaria
In 1363, Upper Bavaria was annexed by Bavaria-Landshut.
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing
Also Counts of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing
1363–1425/29
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut
In 1392, Bavaria-Landshut was broken into three duchies, Bavaria-Munich, a smaller Bavaria-Landshut, and Bavaria-Ingolstadt.
Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing
In 1429, Bavaria-Straubing was partitioned among the other Bavarian duchies.
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt
1429–1503
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich
Bavaria-Munich was partitioned into a smaller Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Dachau in 1467.
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt
Bavaria-Ingolstadt was annexed by Bavaria-Landshut in 1447.
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich Duchy of Bavaria-Dachau
Bavaria-Dachau was reunited with Bavaria-Munich in 1501.
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut
Bavaria-Landshut was annexed by Bavaria-Munich in 1503.
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich

Following the Landshut War (1503–1505), the Duke of Bavaria-Munich Albert IV the Wise became ruler of Bavaria. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture.

In 1623 Maximilian I was granted the title Prince-elector (German: Kurfürst) of the Rhenish Palatinate in 1623.

Kings of Bavaria, 1806–1918

In 1805 under the Peace of Pressburg between the Napoleonic France and the Holy Roman Empire several duchies were elevated to kingdoms. The Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria held the title King of Bavaria from 1806 until 1918. The prince-elector of Bavaria, Maximilian IV Joseph formally assumed the title King Maximilian I of Bavaria on 1 January 1806. The well-known so called Märchenkönig (Fairy tale king) Ludwig II constructed Neuschwanstein Castle, Herrenchiemsee, and Linderhof Palace during his reign (1864–1886), bankrupting the country in the process. In 1918 Ludwig III lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919.

Post-monarchy

In 1918 — at the end of the First World War in the German Revolution of 1918–1919  Bavaria became a democratic republic in the Weimar Republic; the name for the period of Germany from 1919 to 1933. Since then the rulers of Bavaria are minister presidents.

Table of rulers

      Agilolfing dynasty       Carolingian dynasty       Luitpolding dynasty       Ottonian dynasty       Salian dynasty       Houses of Welf and Babenberg       Wittelsbach dynasty

Ducal Bavaria

Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note
Garibald I Duke of Bavaria555 (c.)591Agilolfings Some sources call him "King of the Bavarians".[1]
Tassilo I Duke of Bavaria591 (c.)610Agilolfings Named rex (king) at his ascension.
Garibald II Duke of Bavaria610 (c.)630Agilolfings
Theodo Duke of Bavaria680 (c.)716 (?)Agilolfings By the time of Theodo, who died in 716 or 717, the Bavarian duchy had achieved complete independence from the Frankish kings. Theodo's sons divided the duchy, but by 719 the rule had returned to Grimoald.
Theodbert Duke702 (c.)719AgilolfingsSalzburgSon of Theodo.
Theobald Duke711 (c.)719AgilolfingsParts of BavariaSon of Theodo.
Tassilo II Duke716 (c.)719AgilolfingsPassauSon of Theodo.
Grimoald Duke716 (c.)725AgilolfingsFreisingSon of Theodo, later ruling all of Bavaria.
Hugbert Duke725737Agilolfings Son of Theudbert. In 725(?), Charles Martel, ruler in fact though not in name of the Frankish realm, reasserted royal supremacy over Bavaria, defeating and killing Grimoald and annexing portions of Bavaria during the rule of Hugbert.
Odilo 737748Agilolfings Son of Gotfrid.
Grifo 748748Carolingian Usurper
Tassilo III Duke of Bavaria748788Agilolfings In 757 Tassilo III recognized the suzerainty of the Frankish kings Pippin III and did homage to Charlemagne in 781, and again in 787, while pursued an independent policy. In 788, Charlemagne had Tassilo sentenced to death on a charge of treason. Tassilo, granted pardon, entered a monastery and formally renounced his duchy at Frankfurt am Main in 794.

Carolingian Bavaria and Dominion from the Holy Roman Empire

Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note
CharlemagneCharlemagneEmperor788794Carolingian
Gerold of Vinzgouw Prefect of Bavaria794799 Udalriching Appointed Baioariæ præfectus by Charlemagne. Died in battle.
CharlemagneCharlemagneEmperor794814Carolingian
Lothair I80pxEmperor814817Carolingian
Louis I the PiousLouis the PiousEmperor817829Carolingian In 817, Louis bestowed Bavaria upon his then-youngest son, Louis the German.
Louis II the GermanLouis the GermanKing of Bavaria817865Carolingian Louis was to rule as King of Bavaria, subordinate to his father, until the latter's death in 840. From 843, Bavaria was merged in Louis the German's Kingdom of East Francia. In 864, Louis the German gave control of Bavaria to his son Carloman, and died in 876. Louis' two younger sons, Louis and Charles — the latter of whom briefly recovered control of all the Frankish possessions — ruled Bavaria in succession after Carloman.
CarlomanCarloman of Bavaria King of Bavaria864880Carolingian Eldest son of Louis the German.
Louis III the YoungerLouis the Younger King of Bavaria880882Carolingian Son of Louis the German.
Charles the FatCharles IIIKing of Bavaria882887Carolingian Youngest son of Louis the German.

Carloman's bastard son, Arnulf of Carinthia, rebelled against Charles and took power in eastern Francia shortly before Charles' death.

Arnulf of Carinthia80pxKing of Bavaria887899Carolingian Son of Carloman.
Louis IV the Child80pxKing of Bavaria899911Carolingian Son of Arnulf of Carinthia.
Engeldeo Margrave of Bavaria890895 Deprived of his title marchio Baioariorum and replaced by Luitpold.
Luitpold Margrave of Bavaria895907Luitpolding
Arnulf the Bad 80pxDuke of Bavaria907920Luitpolding Son of Luitpold.

Arnulf the Bad claimed the title of Duke — implying full autonomy — in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler, in 920.

Ducal Bavaria

Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note
Arnulf the Bad 80pxDuke of Bavaria920937Luitpolding Son of Luitpold.

Arnulf the Bad claimed the title of Duke — implying full autonomy — in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler, in 920.

Eberhard Duke of Bavaria937938Luitpolding
Berthold Duke of Bavaria938947Luitpolding Younger son of Luitpold.

The German King Otto I reasserted central authority, banishing Arnulf's son Eberhard and re-granting the title to Berthold, a younger son of Luitpold.

Henry IHenry IIDuke of Bavaria947955Ottonian Son of Henry the Fowler.

On Berthold's death, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, gave the duchy to his own brother Henry (I), who was also Arnulf the Bad's son-in-law.

Henry II the QuarrelsomeHenry IIDuke of Bavaria955976Ottonian Henry II made war upon his cousin, Emperor Otto II, and was deprived of his duchy in 976 in favor of his cousin Otto, Duke of Swabia (who now acquired two dukedoms).
Otto IOtto IDuke of Bavaria976982Ottonian
Henry III the Younger Duke of Bavaria983985Luitpolding Bavaria was given to Berthold's son Henry III, briefly restoring the Luitpolding dynasty. Henry III exchanged Bavaria for Carinthia, and Henry II received Bavaria again.
Henry II the QuarrelsomeHenry IIDuke of Bavaria985995Ottonian Restored
Henry IVKronung Heinrich IIDuke of Bavaria9951004Ottonian Son of Henry II the Quarrelsome.

Henry IV was elected as Holy Roman Emperor Henry II, who gave Bavaria to his brother-in-law Henry V, Count of Luxemburg in 1004.

Henry V Duke of Bavaria10041009Luxemburg Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg.
Henry IVKronung Heinrich IIDuke of Bavaria10091017Ottonian Henry IV reasserted direct control.
Henry V Duke of Bavaria10171026Luxemburg Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg.

Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, gave Bavaria to his son Henry VI after the death of Henry V in 1026.

Henry VI the BlackHenry the BlackDuke of Bavaria10261042Salian Son of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Later Henry was elected as Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, and became King of Germany in 1039.

Henry VII Henry VIIDuke of Bavaria10421047Luxemburg Son of Frederick of Luxembourg.

In 1042, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, granted the duchy to Henry VII, Count of Luxemburg, nephew of Henry V.

Conrad I (Kuno) Duke of Bavaria10491053Ezzonen Son of Liudolf of Lotharingia.

After Henry VII's death, the dukedom was vacant for a couple of years. Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, then gave the duchy to Kuno, Count of Zütphen, in 1049. Kuno was deposed in 1053.

Henry VIIIHeinrich 4 gDuke of Bavaria10531054Salian Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.

During his reign in Bavaria Henry VIII was a minor (born 1050). In 1056 he became King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor as Henry IV in 1084.

Conrad II Duke of Bavaria10541055Salian (minor, born 1052, died 1055) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VIIIHeinrich 4 gDuke of Bavaria10551061Salian (minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084.
Otto II Duke of Bavaria10611070Northeim In 1061 Empress Agnes — the 11-year-old King Henry IV's mother and regent — entrusted the duchy to Otto of Nordheim.
Welf IWelf I Duke of Bavaria10701077Welf Welf I subsequently quarreled with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown.
Henry VIIIHeinrich 4 gDuke of Bavaria10771096Salian (minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084.
Welf IWelf I Duke of Bavaria10961101Welf Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096.
Welf IIWelf II Duke of Bavaria11011120Welf Son of Welf I
Henry IX the BlackHenry IX Duke of Bavaria11201126Welf Son of Welf I.

Abdicated.

Henry X the ProudHenry IXDuke of Bavaria11261138Welf Son of Henry IX the Black.

In a power struggle with King Conrad III of Germany, Henry X lost his duchy to the King, who granted it to his follower Leopold Margrave of Austria.

Leopold ILeopold IVDuke of Bavaria11391141Babenberg When Leopold died, Conrad III of Germany resumed the duchy and granted it to Leopold's brother Henry XI.
Henry XI JasomirgottHenry XIDuke of Bavaria11431156Babenberg Brother of Leopold.
Henry XII the LionHenry XII Duke of Bavaria11561180Welf When Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Germany, he restored Bavaria to the Welf line in the person of Henry X's son, Henry XII the Lion, Duke of Saxony.
Otto III80pxDuke of Bavaria11801183Wittelsbach In 1180 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor gave Bavaria to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach.
Agnes of Loon
(regent)
Regent of Bavaria11831191Wittelsbach Regent on behalf of her son, Louis I. She managed to secure the inheritance of her son.
Louis I Duke of Bavaria11831231Wittelsbach Son of Otto I.

Louis obtained the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1214. So Louis I served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. He was assassinated 1231.

Otto IV80pxDuke of Bavaria12311253Wittelsbach Otto II served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. On Otto II's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers.
Henry XIII Duke of Bavaria12531290WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Otto II (co-ruler) named Henry I, Duke of Lower Bavaria
Louis IIFürstenfeldbruck-Klosterkirche 8 Duke of Bavaria12531294WittelsbachUpper BavariaSon of Otto II (co-ruler) named Ludwig I, Duke of Upper Bavaria
Louis III Duke of Bavaria12901296WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Henry XIII (co-ruler) named Ludwig I, Duke of Lower Bavaria
Stephen I Duke of Bavaria12901309WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Henry XIII (co-ruler) named Stephen I, Duke of Lower Bavaria
Otto V80px Duke of Bavaria12901312WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Henry XIII (co-ruler) named Otto I, Duke of Lower Bavaria. King of Hungary 1306–08.
Matilda of Habsburg
(regent)
80pxRegent of Bavaria12941296Wittelsbach Regent on behalf of her son, Rudolf.
Rudolf I80px Duke of Bavaria12941317WittelsbachUpper BavariaSon of Louis II (co-ruler) named Rudolf I, Duke of Upper Bavaria
Louis IV80pxDuke of Bavaria12941347WittelsbachLower Bavaria (as regent)
Upper Bavaria
United Bavaria (1340–1347)
Son of Louis II.

Co-ruled with his brother Rudolf I until 1317 — then alone. Louis IV was elected King of Germany in 1314. In the Treaty of Pavia (1329) Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. After John I the Child's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.

Otto VI Duke of Bavaria13091334WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Stephen I (co-ruler)
Henry XIV the Elder Duke of Bavaria13091339WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Stephen I (co-ruler)
Henry XV the Natterberger Duke of Bavaria13121333WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Otto III (co-ruler)
John I the Child Duke of Bavaria13391340WittelsbachLower BavariaSon of Henry XIV the Elder (co-ruler). After John I's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy (1340–1347).
Louis V the Brandenburger70pxDuke of Bavaria13471361WittelsbachBavaria and 2nd partitionSon of Louis IV.
Stephan IIStephan IIDuke of Bavaria13471375WittelsbachBavaria and 2nd partitionSon of Louis IV.
Louis VI the Roman80pxDuke of Bavaria13471351WittelsbachBavaria and 2nd partitionSon of Louis IV.
William IWilliam IDuke of Bavaria13471388WittelsbachBavaria and 2nd partitionSon of Louis IV.
Albert IAlbert IDuke of Bavaria13471404WittelsbachBavaria and 2nd partitionSon of Louis IV.
Otto VII the Lazy 80pxDuke of Bavaria13471351WittelsbachBavaria and 2nd partitionSon of Louis IV.
Meinhard80px 13611363WittelsbachUpper BavariaSon of Louis V the Brandenburger. Margrave of Tyrol. After his death in 1363, Upper Bavaria was partitioned between Bavaria-Straubing and Bavaria-Landshut.
John II Duke of Bavaria13751397WittelsbachBavaria-Landshut Bavaria-MunichSon of Stephan II
Frederick the Wise Duke of Bavaria-Landshut13751393WittelsbachBavaria-LandshutSon of Stephan II
Stephen III the Magnificent 13751413WittelsbachBavaria-Landshut Bavaria-IngolstadtSon of Stephan II
Albert IIDuke of Bavaria-Straubing13891397WittelsbachBavaria-StraubingSon of Albert I. Co-ruler with Albert I.
Henry XVI the RichHenry XVI the RichDuke of Bavaria-Landshut13921450WittelsbachBavaria-LandshutSon of Frederick, annexed Bavaria-Ingolstadt in 1447.
William IIIAlbert III and William IIIDuke of Bavaria-Munich13971435WittelsbachBavaria-MunichSon of John II. Co-ruler with Ernest
Ernest80pxDuke of Bavaria-Munich13971438WittelsbachBavaria-MunichSon of John II. Co-ruler with William III (Alone from 1435)
William IIWilliam IIDuke of Bavaria-Straubing14041417WittelsbachBavaria-StraubingSon of Albert I
Louis VII the BeardedLouis VIIDuke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt14131443WittelsbachBavaria-IngolstadtSon of Stephen III
JacquelineJacquelineDuchess of Bavaria-Straubing14171432WittelsbachBavaria-StraubingDaughter of William II, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing. Until 1425 contested by John III the Pitiless. In 1432 Bavaria-Straubing was partitioned among the other Bavarian duchies.
John III the PitilessJohn the PitilessDuke of Bavaria-Straubing14181425WittelsbachBavaria-StraubingSon of Albert I. Contested Jacqueline until his death 1425.
Albert IIIAlbert III and William IIIDuke of Bavaria-Munich14381460WittelsbachBavaria-MunichSon of Ernest
Louis VIII the Younger Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt14431445WittelsbachBavaria-IngolstadtSon Louis VII the Bearded. Bavaria-Ingolstadt was annexed by Bavaria-Landshut in 1447.
Louis IX the RichLouis IXDuke of Bavaria-Landshut14501479WittelsbachBavaria-LandshutSon of Henry XVI the Rich
John IV Duke of Bavaria14601463WittelsbachBavaria-MunichSon of Albert III. Co-ruler with Sigismund and Albert IV the Wise
SigismundSigismund of Bavaria 14601501WittelsbachBavaria-Munich Bavaria-DachauSon of Albert III

Bavaria-Dachau was reunited with Bavaria-Munich in 1501.

George the RichGeorge the RichDuke of Bavaria-Landshut14791503WittelsbachBavaria-LandshutSon of Louis IX the Rich.

Bavaria-Landshut was annexed by Bavaria-Munich.

Duchy of Bavaria

Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note
Albert IV
Albrecht IV
Albert IVDuke of Bavaria146318 March 1508WittelsbachBavaria-MunichSon of Albert III, he became ruler of the greater part of Bavaria following the Landshut War (1503–1505). In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture. Called "the Wise."

Bavaria-Munich was partitioned into a smaller Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Dachau in 1467.

William IV
Wilhelm IV
William IVDuke of Bavaria18 March 15086 March 1550Wittelsbach Son of Albert IV the Wise. Co-ruler with Louis X
Louis X
Ludwig X
Louis XDuke of Bavaria151622 April 1545Wittelsbach Son of Albert IV the Wise. Co-ruler with William IV
Albert V
Albrecht V
Albert VDuke of Bavaria6 March 155024 October 1579Wittelsbach Son of William IV
William V
Wilhelm V
William VDuke of Bavaria24 October 157915 October 1597Wittelsbach Son of Albert V, abdicated, died 1626.
Maximilian IMaximilian IPrince-elector of Bavaria23 December 159725 February 1623Wittelsbach Son of William V. Maximilian I, was an ally of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War. When the Elector of the Palatinate, Frederick V, head of a senior branch of the Wittelsbachs, became involved in the war against the Emperor, he was stripped of his Imperial offices and the Prince-elector title. Maximilian I was granted the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1623.

Electorate of Bavaria

Name Image Title Start term End term House Note
Maximilian IMaximilian IPrince-elector of Bavaria25 February 162327 September 1651WittelsbachIn 1648, Frederick of the Palatinate's heir was restored to his Rhenish territory — but not to the Oberpfalz ceded to Bavaria — together with a new Electorate; Maximilian retained the Electorate granted him in 1623.
Ferdinand MariaFerdinand MariaPrince-elector of Bavaria27 September 165126 May 1679WittelsbachSon of Maximilian I. 1651-1654 under regency of his uncle Albert VI of Bavaria.
Maximilian II EmanuelMaximilian II EmanuelPrince-elector of Bavaria26 May 167926 February 1726WittelsbachSon of Ferdinand Maria and Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy.
Maximilian II took part in the War of the Spanish Succession on the side of France, against the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. He was accordingly forced to flee Bavaria following the Battle of Blenheim and deprived of his Electorate on 29 April 1706. He regained his Electorate in 1714 by the Peace of Baden and ruled until 1726.
Charles John
Karl Johann
Charles VII, Holy Roman EmperorPrince-elector of Bavaria26 February 17265 May 1745HabsburgSon of Emperor Leopold I.

Charles John, was nicknamed the "Knight King", once again took on the House of Habsburg in the War of the Austrian Succession, again in combination with France, succeeding so far as to be elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1737 (as Charles VII) after the death of his older brother, Charles VI's death in 1736. However, the Austrians occupied Bavaria (1742–1744), and the Emperor died at age of 57.

Maximilian III JosephKaiser Maximilian III - Peter Jacob HoremansPrince-elector of Bavaria20 January 174530 December 1777WittelsbachSon of Charles Albert.
Maximilian III, who had no children, was the last of the direct Bavarian Wittelsbach line descended from Louis IV. He was succeeded by the Elector of the Palatinate, Charles Theodore, who thereby regained their old titles for the senior Wittelsbach line — descended from Louis IV's older brother Rudolf I.
Charles Theodore
Karl Theodor
Kurfürst Karl Theodor (Bayern)Elector of the Palatinate30 December 177716 February 1799WittelsbachSon of John Christian, Count of Palatinate-Sulzbach and Marie Anne Henriëtte Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne.
Distant cousin of Maximilian III; Elector Palatine from 1743.
Charles Theodore was also childless, and was succeeded by a distant cousin, the Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Maximilian IV Joseph — later King Maximilian I.
Maximilian IV JosephMaximillian IElector of the Palatinate16 February 17996 August 1806WittelsbachSon of Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken.
Distant cousin of Charles Theodore; Count Palatine of Zweibrücken from 1795.

In the chaos of the wars of the French Revolution, the old order of the Holy Roman Empire collapsed. In the course of these events, Bavaria became once again the ally of France, and Maximilian IV Joseph became King Maximilian I of Bavaria — whilst remaining Prince-Elector and Arch-steward of the Holy Roman Empire until 6 August 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire was abolished.

Template:Electors of the Holy Roman Empire after 1356

Kingdom of Bavaria

Name Image Title Start term End term House Note
Maximilian IMaximillian IKing of Bavaria1 January 180613 October 1825Wittelsbachsee above
Ludwig ILudwig IKing of Bavaria13 October 182520 March 1848WittelsbachSon of Maximilian I Joseph.

Abdicated in the Revolutions of 1848

Maximilian IIMaximillian IIKing of Bavaria20 March 184810 March 1864WittelsbachSon of Ludwig I
Ludwig IILudwig IIKing of Bavaria10 March 186413 June 1886WittelsbachSon of Maximilian II

Ludwig II was called the Märchenkönig (Fairy tale king). He acceded to Bavaria becoming a component of the German Empire in 1871, he was declared insane in 1886.[2]

OttoOttoKing of Bavaria13 June 18865 November 1913WittelsbachSon of Maximilian II.

Otto was mentally ill throughout his reign, and his functions were carried out by the following princes regent:

Ludwig IIILudwig IIIKing of Bavaria5 November 191313 November 1918WittelsbachSon of Prince Luitpold.

Prince regent from 1912 until 1913, Then King of Bavaria, he lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 at the end of World War I.

For later rulers, see List of Ministers-President of Bavaria.

References

  1. Paul the Deacon (1907), History of the Langobards (Historia Langobardorum), William Dudley Foulke, trans. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania), III, x, calls him "king of the Bavarians". The mid-thirteenth-century Series Ducum Bavariæ calls him Garibaldus rex, see FMG. Template:Wayback
  2. King, Greg (1996), The Mad King: The Life and Times of Ludwig II of Bavaria., ISBN: 978-1-55972-362-6

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