- "Rudolf I", "Rudolf the Pious", and "Rudolf I of Germany" redirect here. For other uses, see Rudolf I (disambiguation), Rudolf the Pious (disambiguation), and Rudolf I of Germany (disambiguation).
|Rudolf Niemiecki of Poland|
A seal of Rudolf I
|Emperor of the Romans|
|Reign||17 February 1260 – 5 November 1299|
|Coronation||1 October 1260, Rome|
|Predecessor||Frederick II in 1258|
|Successor||Henry VII in 1312|
|King of Germany|
|Reign||21 May 1254 – 5 November 1299|
|Coronation||21 May 1254, Aachen|
|King of Italy|
|Reign||3 April 1272 – 5 November 1299|
|Coronation||3 April 1272, Milan|
|Predecessor||Otto IV in 1212|
|Successor||Henry VII in 1311|
|King of Sicily (jure uxoris)|
|Reign||11 November 1285 – 5 November 1299|
|Duke of Swabia and Austria|
|Reign||3 October 1259 – 5 November 1299|
|Born||1 May 1226 |
Limburgh Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl, Holy Roman Empire
|Died||5 November 1299 (aged 73) |
Lavello, Basilicata, Kingdom of Sicily
|Father||Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Matilda of Swabia|
Rudolf I (German: Rudolf; Polish: Rudolf Niemiecki; French: Rodolphe; Italian: Rodolfo; 1 May 1226 – 5 November 1299) was the Duke of Swabia and King of the Romans from 1259, the Emperor of the Romans from 1260, King of Italy from 1272, King of Bohemia from 1278, and the King of Sicily from 1285 to his death. He previously served as the de facto High Duke of Poland from 1296 to 1298. He was the last member of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty to rule the Holy Roman Empire.
During his reign, Rudolf was called "Rudolf the Pious" (German: Rudolf der Fromme); was the first physically and mentally healthy ruler of the Holy Roman Empire ever to be deposed without a papal excommunication. He is also famous for his good personality in wars, internal policies and more. Frederick II and Rudolf who followed and continued his father, along with Henryk IV Probus of Poland and Ladislaus IV of Hungary signed a alliance peace treaty, which at the start of the third invasion of Poland from 1287 to 1288. On 1291, the 49 year-old Conrad allied with English king and cousin, Edward I of England and against the French king Philip IV of France. Meanwhile in Poland, King Przemysł II died in 1296 and Rudolf was favorited to become High Duke, which he accepted from 1296 to 1298, under the name "Rudolf Niemiecki" or "Rudolf I Niemiecki"; which means, "the German".
Rudolf was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary. At his final years, he flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother. War with first Italian feudal lord, Adalberto Boccanegra and defeated Adalberto at Basilicata which he caused his death on 5 April 1299, in Basilicata. His death result in the Holy Roman Empire led the title of Holy Roman Emperor vacant until 1312 in the hands of Henry VII. His body was travelling and was buried in Aachen Cathedral in the Holy Roman Empire.
- 1 Early years
- 2 Military service and Crusader
- 3 Reign
- 4 Government, law and war
- 5 Later reign
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Family and children
- 8 Titles, honours and styles
- 9 Heraldry
- 10 Ancestors
- 11 Notes
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
He was the eldest son of Emperor Frederick II and Matilda of Swabia. By his father, Rudolf was the grandson of the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI and great-grandson of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. He lived in Southern Italy until 1235, when he first visited the Kingdom of Germany. During this period his kingdom of Jerusalem, ruled by his father as regent through proxies, was racked by the civil War of the Lombards until Rudolf declared his majority and his father's regency lost its validity.
Military service and Crusader
Peace and Second Barons' War
After Frederick II made peace with King Christopher I of Denmark in city of Luberk on 1258. Peace was restored and city of Lübeck was still part of the Empire, in fact that it was almost taken by Danish in the 1256 siege and were defeated. By the following year on 29 May 1259, King Christopher died after drinking poisoned communion wine from the hands of abbot Arnfast of Ryd Abbey in revenge for his mistreatment of Archbishop Erlendsen and the king's oppression of the church.
The reign of his half-brother, Henry III is most remembered for the constitutional crisis in this period of civil strife, which was provoked ostensibly by Henry III's demands for extra finances, but which marked a more general dissatisfaction with Henry's methods of government on the part of the English barons, discontent which was exacerbated by widespread famine. Baron Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester became leader of those who wanted to reassert the Magna Carta and force the king to surrender more power to the baronial council. In 1258, initiating the move toward reform, seven leading barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, which effectively abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of twenty-four barons to deal with the business of government and providing for a great council in the form of a parliament every three years, to monitor their performance. Henry was forced to take part in the swearing of a collective oath to uphold the Provisions.
He joined King Henry and Richard of Cornwall in fighting against Simon de Montfort's rebels. After the shattering royalist defeat and with Conrad's son, Conrad of Swabia wounded at the Battle of Lewes, Richard and Conrad and his son took refuge in a windmill, Frederick and his son escaped, while Richard, Henry and Prince Edward were prisoner of war until September 1265.
|Holy Roman Emperor|
|Coats of arms|
Rudolf I was crowned on 1 October 1260 in Rome.
Becoming the King of Italy
War with Ottokar II of Bohemia
In November 1274, the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg decided that all Crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that King Ottokar II must answer to the Diet for not recognising the new king. Ottokar refused to appear or to restore the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia together with the March of Carniola, which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenberg heiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Margrave Hermann VI of Baden. Rudolf refuted Ottokar's succession to the Babenberg patrimony, declaring that the provinces reverted to the Imperial crown due to the lack of male-line heirs. King Ottokar was placed under the imperial ban; and in June 1276 war was declared against him.
Having persuaded Ottokar's former ally Duke Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria to switch sides, Rudolf compelled the Bohemian king to cede the four provinces to the control of the royal administration in November 1276. Rudolf then re-invested Ottokar with the Kingdom of Bohemia, betrothed one of his daughters to Ottokar's son Wenceslaus II, and made a triumphal entry into Vienna. Ottokar, however, raised questions about the execution of the treaty, made an alliance with some Piast chiefs of Poland, and procured the support of several German princes, again including Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria. To meet this coalition, Rudolf formed an alliance with King Ladislaus IV of Hungary and gave additional privileges to the Viennese citizens. On 26 August 1278, the rival armies met at the Battle on the Marchfeld, where Ottokar was defeated and killed. The March of Moravia was subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolf's representatives, leaving Ottokar's widow Kunigunda of Slavonia in control of only the province surrounding Prague, while the young Wenceslaus II was again betrothed to Rudolf's youngest daughter Judith.
Cooperation of England and Hungary
Like his father Conrad manage to have a good relationship with his cousin, Edward I of England. Upon cooperation to England which Edward and Conrad makes a alliance peace treaty that will unbreakable. Conrad met Edward in London on 24 March 1275. Conrad and Edward was make a trade treaty between the Holy Roman Empire and England, which Edward's war in Wales which supported by Conrad. In Hungary, he met Ladislaus IV of Hungary on February 1277, but when the Golden Horde's second invasion of Hungary, which Ladislaus IV sent a letter to Conrad III to help. Conrad III agreed and sent military help into Hungary.
Government, law and war
Bolesław V's death and Henryk IV Cooperation
Upon Bolesław V the Chaste's death on 7 December 1279, without any issue. Bolesław V's successor was Henryk IV Probus, which both Conrad III and Henryk IV were personal relationships and alliance with each other on 3 January 1280. Upon Henry IV's succession was marked as the first King in Poland. Both the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Poland becomes alliance once again and resigned the an alliance treaty and remarked the 350-years. Conrad III, Henryk IV and Ladislaus IV of Hungary signed the treaty the fellow day, but when the Mongol invasion in Poland with the Holy Roman Empire's support.
Imperial Civil War
After Conrad and his father Charles IV defeated Frederick in 1264 Civil war, which forced Frederick into exile. Frederick made a comeback in the Holy Roman Empire in 1279, five years after Conrad's father death in 1274. Frederick's legitimate claim to the Imperial throne since 1264. Both Conrad and his father are pro-peace monarchs, while Frederick was pro-war and wants to conqueror. Frederick was also made allies with Conrad's rival the Kingdom of Poland.
Conrad made allies with his cousin, Edward I of England, at the Battle of Aachen with 5-4. After the loss of Nürnberg in 1281 and the Holy Roman Empire re-took Nürnberg a year later in 1282. On 1 February 1283, Frederick assassinated in his rebel capital of Köln by his own guards. With the civil war at the end, it will be loyalty among the German subjects. Until on 1531, 248 years later, the Schmalkaldic League against the Empire under the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
But Michael had not been working upon the military front alone. Many Ghibelline officials had fled the Kingdom of Sicily to the court of Peter III of Aragon, who had married Constance, the daughter and heir of Manfred. Manfred's former chancellor, John of Procida, had arranged contact between Michael, Peter and the refugees at his court, and conspirators on the island of Sicily itself. Peter began to assemble a fleet at Barcelona, ostensibly for another Crusade to Tunis. In fact, the master-plan of John of Procida was to place Peter on the throne of Sicily, his Hohenstaufen inheritance. The result was the uprising known as the Sicilian Vespers, which was initiated in Palermo on 29 March 1282. It rapidly grew into a general massacre of the French in Sicily. A few officials notable for their good conduct were spared, and the city of Messina still held for Charles. But through the diplomatic errors of Charles' vicar, Herbert of Orléans, Messina, too, revolted on 28 April 1282. Herbert retreated to the castle of Mategriffon, but was forced to abandon the Crusader fleet, which was burnt.
The news surprised Peter of Aragon, who had expected to intervene only after Charles had left for Constantinople. But the conspirators, aided by Emperor Michael (who wished to see Charles balked in his expedition), had set the revolt in motion early. Peter did not immediately intervene; he sailed with the fleet to Tunis, where he discovered that the would-be convert on whose behalf the Crusade had ostensibly been undertaken had been caught and executed. While he bided his time, the Sicilians made an appeal to Pope Martin to take the Communes of their cities under his protection. But Martin was far too deeply committed to Charles and French interests to heed them; instead, he excommunicated the rebels, Emperor Michael, and the Ghibellines in north Italy. Charles gathered his forces in Calabria, landed near Messina, and began a siege. Several attempts to assault the city were unsuccessful. Rejected by the Pope, the Sicilians now appealed to King Peter and Queen Constance; he duly accepted, and landed at Trapani on 30 August 1282. He was proclaimed king in Palermo on 4 September, but as the archibishopric of Palermo was vacant, he could not immediately be crowned. In the face of the Aragonese landing, Charles was compelled to withdraw across the Straits of Messina into Calabria in September, but the Aragonese moved swiftly enough to destroy part of his army and most of his baggage. The Angevin house was forever ousted from Sicily.
Accession to the Sicilian throne
Upon, Charles I of Naples's accession to the Sicilian and Naples thrones in 1266, after Charles killed Conrad's younger brother, Manfred at the Battle of Benevento. Charles d'Anjou become King of Naples and Sicily. Conrad III didn't recognize the French-born Charles I. But when the and War of the Sicilian Vespers on 1282. The Ghibellines lords wanted Conrad III to overthrow French-born monarch Charles I d'Anjou. However, Conrad declared war against Naples and Sicily. It took two years, when Charles I died on January 1285. Conrad was become King of Sicily by the Ghibellines lords on 2 March 1285. Conrad traveled from Frankfurt to Palermo and was crowned on 18 March 1285.
After Conrad III become King in Sicily, he rebuild and restoration of the Romano-Sicilian alliance treaty, which that was stopped by Manfred's death.
As well Charles's son become King of Naples. But, his popularity in Sicily and Naples was well-maintained between Sicilian and Naples citizens and lords with their new monarch, Conrad III. Unlike his father, Conrad's relationship with it's citizen are unique.
Conrad III and his son, Conrad FitzEmpress, later Conrad IV saw the effects of the a civil war in England when Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester rebelled Conrad's half-brother, Henry III.
In Holy Roman Empire, several dukes and barons are issues to rebelled Conrad III as well, Frederick of Upper Lorraine's relationship with Conrad are been decreased throughout the four years. Henry invited his brother, Conrad to support. In response, he sent 150,000 Germans soldiers into London. Frederick with few barons turned against Conrad, with Frederick's claim to the Imperial throne was becoming pro-war as well of Conrads' pro-peace. Frederick captured Conrad, for a few weeks before Conrad escaped, Frederick lead his army and took Nuremberg and München. By result, Conrad had no choice to take on Frederick.
On 21 June 1272, Conrad's army with loyal subjects re-gained Nuremberg, in few months after Frederick took Nuremberg from Conrad. While Frederick failed to take Frankfurt, which Albert I, Duke of Saxony told Conrad to re-take München on August 1272. Frederick also took Leipzig, Mariendorf and Koln. Conrad, Conrad and Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg defeated Baron Rudolf of Baden at the Battle of Zürch in 1265.
Conrad took command of the Imperial army on 1 September 1272, and lead their army to attempted took re-take Baden, leading a successful, but lost a lot of men up to 150,000 men. Conrad heard the news that Simon de Montfort was killed by his brother's loyal men at the Battle of Evesham. Now, Henry and his son, Edward requested Conrad for the assistance, which Conrad agreed. Henry and Edward took 500,000 men each and travel to Frankfurt.
Conrad re-claim the territories of Leipzig, Mariendorf and Koln with the help of his royal friend, Margrave Otto III. Bela IV, Henry III despased Frederick's claim to the Imperial throne was that Frederick wanting the Imperial throne, as he was pro-war. The German army now leads by Duke-Margrave Otto of Brandenburg as the Holy Roman Empire re took the remaining lands that Frederick took in 5 June 1273. Frederick turns to Conrad's rival, Bolesław V the Chaste in Poland to gain the Imperial throne from Conrad III. Bolesław V at first refused, this is at the time the Holy Roman Empire was at war with two fronts.
Conrad learned that Prince Conrad wounded and escaped at the Battle of Straßburg. Conrad took revenge and captured Baron Ludwig of Leipzing and put to trail of treason. Frederick went round two which failing took Frankfurt and Koln. With the help of King Béla IV of Hungary, Conrad defeated Frederick but manage to escaped at the Battle of Limburg in winter of 1273. Frederick and Conrad fighting at the Battle of Wurzburg, Conrad was managed to defeated Frederick for the second time and Frederick was forced to exile on 2 March 1274.
Sicilian Vespers and aftermath
The rising had its origin in the struggle of investiture between the Pope and the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors for control over Italy, especially the Church's private demesne known as the Papal States. These lay between Hohenstaufen lands in northern Italy and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom of Sicily in the south; the Hohenstaufen also at the time ruled Germany.
In 1240 Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Frederick II and declared him deposed, and roused opposition against him in Germany and Italy. When Frederick died in 1242, his dominion was inherited by his cousin, Conrad FitzCountess. Conrad declared himself claiming as its rightful hair to the Italian throne. Manfred had no involvement in German politics, where the interregnum lasted longer and there was no emperor until 1274. He first styled himself as vicar of his nephew Conradin, Conrad's son. However, following a false rumour that Conradin was dead, Manfred later had himself crowned as king. He wished for a reconciliation with the papacy, which may have explained his support for the landless Baldwin II, Latin Emperor. However, Pope Urban IV and later Pope Clement IV were not prepared to recognize Manfred as lawful ruler of Sicily and first excommunicated then sought to depose him by force of arms. After abortive attempts to enlist England as the champion of the Papacy against Manfred, Urban IV settled on Charles I of Naples as his candidate for the Sicilian throne. Charles invaded Italy and defeated and killed Manfred in 1266 at the Battle of Benevento, becoming King of Sicily. In 1268 Conradin, who had meanwhile come of age, invaded Italy to press his claim to the throne, but he was defeated at the Battle of Tagliacozzo and executed afterwards. Charles was now undisputed master of the Kingdom of Sicily.
The event takes its name from an insurrection which began at the start of Vespers, the sunset prayer marking the beginning of the night vigil on Easter Monday, 30 March 1282, at the Church of the Holy Spirit just outside Palermo. Beginning on that night, thousands of Sicily's French inhabitants were massacred within six weeks. The events that started the uprising are not known for certain, but the various retellings have common elements. Conrad makes alliance with Peter III of Aragon and invade Sicily to overthrow Charles I of Anjou. After the overthrow, Conrad recognized Peter III as King of Sicily and re-created alliance with Sicily since 1266; but this is before his death.
A generally acknowledged king had to remedy the lack of peace and justice perceived by contemporaries. The Reich administration was reorganized in Franconia. At the district Court Rothenburg, the records were recorded in the court books in 1274. They are among the oldest of their kind. Conrad began a royal Land Peace implementation, which was initially limited to regional and temporary agreements. In 1276, a country confined to Austria was issued peace. There followed in 1281 land peace for the regions of Bavaria, Franconia, Rhineland and again Austria. The king's far North could not be included in the same way; Peacekeeping took over the individual territorial masters there. In Würzburg at the end of March 1287 the peace was built on the model of the of the Mainz Reich's Peace from 1235 to the whole empire.
Conrad began a royal policy, which was initially limited to regional and time-limited arrangements. In 1276 a land peace restricted to Austria was issued. This was followed by 1281 land peace agreements for the regions Bavaria, Franconia, Rhineland and again Austria. He than reunited with France with Philip III of France and his son, Philip IV in years 1285 to 1288.
Returned to Nuremberg and War with Aragon
Despite his retreat into Calabria, Charles remained in a strong position. His nephew, Philip III of France, was devoted to him and Pope Martin regarded the rebellion as an affront both to French interests and his own rights as suzerain of the kingdom. Both sides temporized; the expense of a long war might be disastrous for both, and Peter and Charles arranged for a judicial duel, with a hundred knights apiece, on 1 June 1283 at Bordeaux. Skirmishes and raids continued to occur: in January 1283, Aragonese guerillas attacked Catona and killed Count Peter I of Alençon in his hostel. In February the Aragonese crossed into Calabria to face off with Charles of Salerno. However, tensions between the Aragonese and the Sicilians had begun to rise. Both men now hoped to turn the war to their advantage, and the judicial duel turned into a farce, the two kings arriving at different times, declaring a victory over their absent opponent, and departing. Now the war escalated: Pope Martin had excommunicated Peter and proclaimed war against the Sicilians and a Crusade in January, and in March declared Peter to be deprived of his dominions. On 2 February 1284, Aragon and Valencia were officially conferred upon Charles of Valois.
The war continued in Italy: while little progress had been made in Calabria, a detachment of the Aragonese fleet was blockading Malta. Charles of Salerno sent a newly raised Provençal fleet to the relief of Malta, but it was caught by the main Aragonese fleet under Roger of Lauria and destroyed in the Battle of Malta. The Aragonese were now, however, running quite short of money, and Peter was threatened by the prospect of a French attack on Aragon. King Charles planned to raise new troops and a fleet in Provence, and instructed Charles of Salerno to maintain a strict defensive posture until his return from France. However, Roger of Lauria continued to command the sea and launch harassing raids up and down the coast of Calabria, and in May 1284 he successfully blockaded Naples, basing a small squadron on the island of Nisida to do so. The Neapolitans were infuriated by the blockade, and in June Charles of Salerno armed the newly launched fleet at Naples and embarked on 5 June to destroy the blockading squadron. Evidently believing the main Aragonese fleet was raiding down the coast, he hoped to destroy the blockading squadron and return to Naples before it returned. However, Roger of Lauria had learned of his plans, and Charles found himself engulfed by superior numbers. After a short, sharp, fight, most of his fleet was captured, and he himself was taken prisoner.
War with the Guelphs and Uprising
The war between the Guelphs and Ghibellines were rivals between the Holy Roman Empire and Pope when the Guelphs leader, Ottone de Visconti got elected "Captain of the Guelphs" on 11 January 1287, within 6 weeks, Ottone declared war with the Holy Roman Empire. Ottone was also got war with the Ghibellines. Conrad's son, Henry Otto of Sicily became the Ghibelline leader on fall of 1288 with his support of his father. Pope Nicholas IV make peace with Conrad, ending the war with the Guelphs on 4 April the following year.
Family and children
and second, in 1284, to Isabelle of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. All children were from the first marriage.
- Matilda (c. 1253, Rheinfelden – 23 December 1304, Munich), married 1273 in Aachen to Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
and became mother of Rudolf I, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.
who later (after her death) became the disputed King Bela V of Hungary and left no surviving issue.
- Agnes [Gertrude] (ca. 1257 – 11 October 1322, Wittenberg), married 1273 to Albert II, Duke of Saxony
and became the mother of Rudolf I, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg.
- Hedwig (c. 1259 – 26 January 1285/27 October 1286), married 1270 in Vienna to Otto VI, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel and left no issue.
- Clementia (c. 1262 – after 7 February 1293), married 1281 in Vienna to Charles Martel of Anjou, the Papal claimant to the throne of Hungary
- Hartmann (1263, Rheinfelden – 21 December 1281), drowned in Rheinau.
- Rudolf II, Duke of Austria and Styria (1270 – 10 May 1290, Prague), titular Duke of Swabia, father of John the Parricide of Austria.
- Judith of Habsburg (Jutte/Bona) (13 March 1271 – 18 June 1297, Prague), married 24 January 1285 to King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and became the mother of king Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, Poland and Hungary, of queen Anne of Bohemia (1290–1313), duchess of Carinthia, and of queen Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330), countess of Luxembourg.
- Samson (before 19 Oct 1275 – died young).
- Charles (14 February 1276 – 16 August 1276).
Titles, honours and styles
|8. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor|
|4. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor|
|9. Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy|
|2. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor|
|10. Roger II, King of Sicily|
|5. Constance, Queen of Sicily|
|11. Beatrice of Rethel|
|1. Rudolf I, Holy Roman Emperor|
|12. Erard II, Count of Brienne|
|6. John, King of Jerusalem|
|13. Agnes of Montfaucon|
|3. Matilda of Swabia|
|14. Conrad I, King of Jerusalem|
|7. Maria, Queen of Jerusalem|
|15. Isabella I, Queen of Jerusalem|
- Kings of Germany family tree. He was related to every other king of Germany.
- Coxe 1847, p. 5.
- Henry, Seth p. 32
- Henry, Seth p. 11
- Monarkiet i Danmark – Kongerækken Template:Webarchive at The Danish Monarchy
- Henry, Seth p. 10
- Henry, Seth p. 10–11
- "The Biography of Conrad III Plantagenet" p. 43
- Henry, Seth p. 20–21
- Henry, Seth p. 21
- Henry, Seth p. 33–37
- Henry, Seth p. 37
- Henry, Seth p. 38–39
- Henry, Seth p. 39
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- AlfonsoAntiKing pg 2
- Thompson 2003, pg. 45
- Thompson 2003, pg. 46
- Thompson 2003, pg. 47
- Thompson 2003, pg. 50
- Thompson 2003, pg. 141–143
- Thompson 2003, pg. 145
- Thompson 2003, pg. 161
- Thompson 2003, pg. 155
- Thompson 2003, pg. 160
- Thompson 2003, pg. 161
- Thompson 2003, pg. 162
- Thompson 2003, pg. 163
- Thompson 2003, pg. 164
- Thompson 2003, pg. 165–166
- Jefferson 2008, pg. 158
- Tim 2010, pp. 17
- Tim 2010, pp. 19
- King 2010, pp. 34
- Daniels, Jarl (2011), p. 15–19.
- Henry, Seth p. 55
- Daniels, Jarl (2011), p. 19.
- Daniels, Jarl (2011), pg.20
- Runciman, Steven (1958). The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 26ff. ISBN: 0-521-43774-1.
- Runciman, Sicilian Vespers, pp. 16ff.
- Henry, Seth p. 55–56
- Runciman, Sicilian Vespers, pp. 18ff.
- Henry, Seth p. 59
- Template:Cite encyclopedia
- Because the city's borders have expanded over the centuries, the church is now within the city limits.
- Henry, Seth p. 59–60
- Henry, Seth p. 60
- Henry, Seth p. 63
- Henry, Seth p. 65
- Karl-Friedrich Krieger: Rudolf von Habsburg. Darmstadt 2003, pp. 47–56.
- Marita Blattmann Protocol guidance in Roman-canonical and German judicial proceedings in the 13th and 14th centuries. In: Stefan Esders (eds.): understanding of law and conflict management. Judicial and out-of-court strategies in the Middle Ages. Cologne and others 2007, pp. 141 – 164, here: P. 159.
- Darmstadt 2003, pp. 58
- Darmstadt 2003, pp. 59
- Darmstadt 2003, pp. 60
- Darmstadt 2003, pp. 61–62
- Thomas Vogtherr: Rudolf von Habsburg and northern Germany. To the structure of the King's dominion in a distant territory. In: Egon Boshof, Franz-Reiner Erkens (eds.): Rudolf von Habsburg. A king's reign between tradition and change. Cologne U. A. 1993, pp. 139 – 163, here: S. 157f.
- cf. in detail Christel Maria von Graevenitz: ' ' The land peace of Rudolf von Habsburg (1273 – 1291) on the Lower Rhine and in Westphalia. ' ' Cologne 2003, pp. 182 – 261.
- Paulson, Mason, p. 50
- Paulson, Mason, p. 51–52
- Paulson, Mason, p. 53
- Paulson, Mason, p. 54
- Paulson, Mason, p. 54–55
- Paulson, Mason, p. 56
- Duggan 1997, p. 108.
- Earenfight 2013, p. 173.
- Abbott, John S. C. (1877). Austria: It's Rise and Present Power. World's Best Histories. New York: The Cooperative Publication Society.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Rudolf I King of Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Coxe, William (1847). History of the House of Austria. 1. London: Henry G. Bohn.
- Duggan, Anne J., ed. (1997). Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe. The Boydell Press.
- Earenfight, Theresa (2013). Queenship in Medieval Europe. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Emerton, Ephraim (1917). The Beginnings of Modern Europe (1250-1450). Ginn and Company. https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.153828.
- Kohlrausch, Frederick (1847). History of Germany. New York: D. Appleton & Co. https://archive.org/details/historyofgermany00kohl.
Rudolf I, Holy Roman EmperorBorn: 1 May 1226 Died: 5 November 1299
| Burgrave of Nuremberg
Frederick III der Erber
| King of Bohemia
26 August 1278 – 5 November 1299
| King of Jerusalem
24 March 1244 – 5 November 1299
| King of Sicily
11 November 1285 – 5 November 1299
Title last held byFrederick II and VI
| King of Italy
3 April 1272 – 5 November 1299
Title next held byHenry VII
| Holy Roman Emperor|
17 February 1260 – 5 November 1299
| King of Germany|
(formerly King of the Romans)
25 December 1250 – 5 November 1299
| Duke of Swabia and Austria
3 October 1259 – 5 November 1299
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
High Duke of Poland
11 February 1296 – <acronym class="hidden" title="circa">c.</acronym> 1298
Reason for succession failure:
Succession in the Polish Crown
|Become King of Poland|
Title last held byFrederick II
|— DISPUTED —
King of Italy
Disputed by Popes Alexander IV, Urban IV, and Clement IV
Reason for dispute:
Wars of the Lombardy Crown (1254 – 1272)
|Become King of Italy|