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This page is about the ruler of Poland-Lithuania. For other uses, see Charles I (disambiguation).
Stanislaus III Reiter
Portrait by George Dawe
(Warsaw Palace, Warsaw).
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Reign 27 November 1815[1] – 4 April 1847
Coronation 2 February 1816
Predecessor Frederick Augustus I
as Duke of Warsaw
Successor John IV Joseph
King of the Belgians
Reign 21 July 1831 – 4 April 1847
Coronation 2 August 1831
Predecessor Erasme Louis
as Regent of Belgium
Successor John I
Prime Ministers
See list
Born 24 September 1782(1782-09-24)
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire
Died 4 April 1847 (aged 64)
Łazienki Palace, Holy Polish Empire
Wawel Cathedral, Warsaw, Holy Polish Empire
Spouse Princess Charlotte of Wales
(among others)
  • Stanislaus, Duke of Lodz
    Andrzej Kmicic, Count of Stryi
    Stanislav Jacques, Count of Lodz-Ovruch
    Antoine Philippe, Duke of Bar-Radziłów
    Jerzy Michał
    John Sigismund, Duke of Lwów
Full name
Charles Stanislaus Philipp
House Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Luisa of Spain
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Stanislaus III Reiter's signature

Charles I Philipp (also known as Charles I of Poland, Polish: Karol I Filipp, German: Karl, Lithuanian: Karolis Pilypas; 24 September 1782 – 4 April 1847) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Holy Polish Empire from 1815 to 1847, and first King of the Belgians from 1831 to his death. He become the part of the Napoleonic Wars against Napoleon. He was appeared in Lithuanian-Polish Civil Rights Movement and Charles was one of the popular monarchs in Poland and Lithuania.[2][3] He is founded and first grandmaster of the Order of Charles I on 11 July 1832.

Born to Emperor Leopold II and Empress Maria Luisa. Charles entered the Austrian Imperial Army at an early age and soon gained the rank of Feldmarschal-Leutnant. In 1809, he was appointed commander of V Armeekorps. In this capacity, he fought at the battles of Abensberg, Landshut, and Ebersberg in April and May, after which he relinquished his command. After Napoleon's defeat, Leopold moved to the United Kingdom where he married Princess Charlotte of Wales, the only child of the Prince Regent (the future King George IV), thus situating himself as close as possible to the future sovereign of the United Kingdom.

First elected to the Polish throne as the King of the Polish and Grand Duke of Lithuania on 1815 by the Congress of Vienna.[1] Charles was only German monarch to be King of Poland-Lithuania. His popularity laws, including the Social policy and reforms gaining favorite to the people, most of the French moved to Poland, which is known as the French-Poles. After the Greek War of Independence (1821–32), Charles was offered the position of King of Greece but turned it down, believing it to be too precarious. Instead, Charles accepted the kingship of the newly established Kingdom of Belgium in 1831. The Belgian government offered the position to Leopold because of his diplomatic connections with royal houses across Europe. In addition, because he was seen as a British-backed candidate, he was not affiliated to other powers, such as France, which were believed to have territorial ambitions in Belgium which might threaten the European balance of power created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna. Charles took his oath as King of Belgium on 21 July 1831, an event commemorated annually as Belgian National Day.

His reign was marked by attempts by the Dutch to recapture Belgium and, later, by internal political division between liberals and Catholics. Charles was considered liberal and encouraged economic modernisation, playing an important role in encouraging the creation of Belgium's first railway in 1835 and subsequent industrialisation. As a result of the ambiguities in the Belgian Constitution, Charles was able to slightly expand the monarch's powers during his time in Belgium.

He then return to Poland-Lithuania, which on fall of 1846, Charles had a stroke and after nine months, Charles I died on 4 April of the following year at age of 64. He was succeeded by his son, John IV and was buried on Wawel Cathedral in Kraków.

Early life

Leopold I, Grand Duke of Tuscany with his wife Maria Luisa and their children.

Prince Charles Philipp was born on 24 September 1782 in Florence of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the fourteenth child of the Habsburg grand duke Leopold of Tuscany and Maria Louisa of Spain. He was baptized with the name of Charles Philipp,[4]

after the patron saint of the Tuscan capital. In 1790, Leopold succeeded his brother Joseph II as Holy Roman Emperor and his family moved from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany to the Imperial court in Vienna. Only two years later, John's elder brother Francis II ascended the Imperial throne.

As growing up, his brother granted him the Principality of Schwarzenberg in 1793. As Prince, he gain popularity in Schwarzenberg. Charles was suffered with shaking disorder (as today known as; tremor) and mainly had big fan of tight breeches during his younger to his young adult years. He was also learned how to speak Latin, Sicilian, German, French.

Military service

File:Charles I als ruiter.jpg

Lieutenant colonel Charles Philippe in 1806, aged 24.

In the war of 1805 he held command of a division under Mack, and when Ulm was surrounded by Napoleon in October he was one of the band of cavalry, under the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, which cut its way through the hostile lines. In the same year, he received the Commander's Cross of the Order of Maria Theresa and in 1809 he was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece.[5]

In 1806–1809, Schwarzenberg served as the Austrian ambassador to Russia.[6]

Schwarzenburg returned to Austria in time to take part in the Battle of Wagram, leading a cavalry division in the Reserve Corps[7]
and was soon afterwards promoted to general of cavalry. After the peace of Vienna, he was sent to Paris to negotiate the marriage between Napoleon and the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.[5]
The prince gave a ball in honour of the bride on 1 July 1810, which ended in a fire that killed many of the guests, including his own sister-in-law, wife of his older brother, Joseph.[8]

Napoleon held Schwarzenberg in great esteem, and it was at his request that the prince took command of the Austrian auxiliary corps in the Russian campaign of 1812. The Austrian general won some minor victories against the Russians at Gorodetschna and Wolkowisk. Afterwards, under instructions from Napoleon, he remained for some months inactive at Pultusk.[9]

In 1813, when Austria, after many hesitations, took the side of the allies against Napoleon, Schwarzenberg, recently promoted to Feldmarschall, was appointed commander-in-chief of the allied Grand Army of Bohemia. As such, he was the senior of the allied generals who conducted the campaign of 1813–1814.[10]

Under his command, the allied army was mauled by Napoleon at the Battle of Dresden on 26–27 August and driven back into Bohemia. However, his army defeated pursuing French forces at the Second Battle of Kulm. Returning to the fray, he led the Allied army north again and played a major role in Napoleon's decisive defeat at the Battle of Leipzig on 16–18 October. During the invasion of France in 1814, he beat a French force at the Battle of Bar-sur-Aube in late February. He repelled an attack by Napoleon in the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube on 20–21 March and overcame the last barrier before Paris by winning the Battle of Fère-Champenoise on 25 March. His capture of the French capital on 31 March after the Battle of Paris resulted in the overthrow of Napoleon.[11]

The next year, during the Hundred Days when Napoleon escaped from Elba and regained the French throne, in the hostilities that followed Schwarzenberg commanded the Army of the Upper Rhine (an Austrian-allied army of about a quarter of a million men).[12]

But shortly afterwards, having lost his sister Caroline, to whom he was deeply attached, he fell ill. A stroke disabled him in 1817, and in 1820, when revisiting Leipzig, the scene of the "Battle of the Nations" that he had directed seven years before, he suffered a second stroke. He died there on 15 October.[10]


File:Charlotte and Charles wedding.jpg

Engraving of the wedding of Charlotte and Charles Philippe (later Charles I) in 1816

Charles received British citizenship in 1815.[13]

On 2 May 1816, Charles married Princess Charlotte of Wales at Carlton House in London. Charlotte was the only legitimate child of the Prince Regent George (later King George IV) and therefore second in line to the British throne. Charlotte had been engaged to the Prince of Orange, but finding him distasteful, broke it off in favour of Charles. The Prince Regent was displeased, but found Leopold to be charming and possessing every quality to make his daughter happy, thus approving of their marriage. The same year he received an honorary commission to the rank of Field Marshal and Knight of the Order of the Garter.[13]
. They had eight children.[14]


  • John IV Joseph, King of the Polish (23 March 1816 – 8 September 1868), married [[]], had issue.
  • James Casimir II, King of the Polish (11 July 1821 – 5 July 1871), married [[]], had issue.
  • Casimir Ludwik, Duke of Radziłów (9 January 1822 – 15 July 1877), married [[]], had issue.
  • Stanislaus Radziłów, Prince of Holland (21 March 1822 – 1 January 1882), married [[]], had issue.
  • Jacques Philippe, Count of Krakow (17 December 1822 – 2 February 1895), married [[]], had issue.
  • Louis Jean, Earl of Solechniki-Orléans (9 April – 18 April 1823), stillborn.
  • Louis Philippe, Earl of Solechniki (21 April 1825 – 18 November 1902), married [[]], had issue.
  • Michal Ludwik, Duke of Ovruch (9 November 1826 – 1 February 1890), married [[]], had issue.


  • Andrzej Kmicic, Count of Stryi (18 March 1819), stillborn
  • Stanislav Jacques, Count of Lodz-Ovruch (23 August 1821 – 2 November 1874), married [[]], had issue.
  • Antoine Philippe, Duke of Bar-Radziłów (26 December 1827 – 9 August 1895), married Margaret, Duchess of Bar-Radziłów, had issue.
  • Jerzy Michał (22 January 1829 – 14 May 1832), no marriage and no issue.
  • John Sigismund, Duke of Lwów (27 July 1833 – 7 September 1868), married [[]], had issue.

The election of the Polish King


Charles Philipp in 1814.

When Frederick Augustus I of Saxony, Duke of Warsaw resign or abdicated in 1815 by ending the Napoleonic Wars which Napoleon was forced to exile. The Congress of Vienna was hold up an election. However, as was often the case with the Polish electoral monarchy, the outcome was strongly contested by the greedy and stubborn Polish nobility who backed and supported the British king George III of Britain for King of Poland. Upon hearing of his election King Charles slipped through the clutches of the Protestants in Austria and landed in Poland on 7 October, immediately agreeing to give up several royal privileges to the parliament (Sejm) in the hope of winning over some of his enemies and settling the disputed election.[15][16] Frederick Augustus I returned to Saxony with defeat.

He was proclaimed by the Lesser Prussian Treasurer Jan Dulski as king on behalf of Crown Marshal Andrzej Opaliński, and after arriving in the Royal Capital City of Warsaw he was crowned on 2 August at Wawel Cathedral. After the election, Charles I's family attended the coronation, thus making allied alliance between Poland-Lithuania and Austrian Empire. Frederick Augustus I tried to reclaim the crown for himself, but defeated by Charles himself.[17] The so-called Convocation Sejm convened in Warsaw on December 1814, and deliberated until February 1. The two camps argued with each other, as the pro-war faction blamed late King Stanisław II Augustus and Jerzy Ossolinski for the outbreak of the uprising in the Polish Ukraine.

Reign in Poland-Lithuania

File:Gros - Charles Philippe, the King of the Polish (1781-1846)-2.jpg

Portrait of Charles I in his Coronation Robes by Antoine-Jean Gros.

Accession to the throne

He was the first German-born Polish monarch who is the veteran of the Napoleonic Wars.[18] He was one of the most popular monarch in Polish since John III Sobieski. At the coronation at Wawel Cathedral in Kraków to be crowned as King of the Polish and Prince of Lithuania, at age of 32. He was considered one of the youngest monarchs in Poland, he also as second Polish-Lithuanian monarch was born as French and first French-born Polish monarch in the 19th century. Of course the office of Prime Minister was abolished after the reign of James Casimir I. He had many attempts to restore but failed he had another plan, instead both the Poles and Lithuanians formed as "Holy Polish Empire" by request by the people, the empire always had a Elective monarchy.[19]

During Charles's reign, the Łazienki Palace was a residence of Charles I from 1803 to 1817 during the Napoleonic Wars and from 1845 to his death, following year.

During his reign, his popularity that he rebuilding Poland and its army which comes aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. His was the mildest and least reactionary of all the Italian despotisms of the day, and although always subject to Austrian influence he refused to adopt the Austrian methods of government, allowed a fair measure of liberty to the press, and permitted many political exiles from other states to dwell in Tuscany undisturbed. But when during the early 1840s unrest spread throughout Italy, even in Tuscany demands for a constitution and other political reforms were advanced; in 1845 and 1846 riots occurred in various parts of the country, and Leopold granted a number of administrative reforms.

By the success of the elective monarchy, Charles gaining relationship with both Poles and Lithuania as loyal and respect. Charles's owned and respected 19th Dragoons had a service as bodyguards in the reign of Charles I as well of outside in Poland-Lithuania. He was re-established the Polish parliament with a lower house, Sejm and upper house, Senate. Charles I appointed his friend, Wincenty Krasiński as first Marshal of the Polish parliament in 1819. The relationship with the King and Krasiński were close. The office of President of Polish National Government were created by the parliament, which his other friend, Adam Jerzy Czartoryski.

Relationship with Polish-Lithuanian people

File:King Charles I of Poland.jpg

Charles I in 1826.

When he become King, the relationship with the Poles are one of the great monarchs since Casimir III of Poland in 1300s. Plenty of French Polish in Poland approved by 91 percent, which considered Charles I as their favorite and working hard monarch in Poland. Both the King and the people agreed the signing of 1818 constitution on 8 August 1818.

As most favor monarch in the Polish Empire, Charles throughout his reign, he remaining loyal to the Polish and Lithuanian People in fact that he is rebuilding the Polish Empire from the ground and up. He is remaining rebuilding Poland, after the events of the Napoleonic Wars. Historian Jackson Paul considered Charles "an proved an enigmatic administrator with a ruthless streak not inferior to the empire".

On October 1820 a manuscript entitled Manuskript aus Süddeutschland (Manuscript from Southern Germany) was published in London. The book contained a review of the historical development and the political situation in Germany. It called for a further mediatisation of small countries in Germany to the four central states of Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover and Württemberg, which together should form a counterweight to the great powers of Prussia and Austria.

As King and Grand Duke, Charles I's charm and culture earned him the title was "Uncle of Europe"; also determined to create a unified people, even though the north and the south had drifted far apart culturally and economically since the south was reconquered by Spain after the Act of Abjuration of 1581. The North was commercial, Protestant and entirely Dutch-speaking; the south was industrial, Roman Catholic and divided between Dutch and French-speakers

Assassination attempt

An unsuccessful attempt on the life of the king was made on 14 August 1817, at 1 am, the 35-year-old Charles I was exiting Krakow to riding in the streets in his free time. The assassin, Lithuanian archaist Frederick August stabbed the King five times while Frederick whispered in his ear while plunging a knife into his abdomen and legs four times, but survived. The wounded King was in pain and was wounded, Charles I was lying wounded in the outside of Krakow surrounded by citizens, with his men was in the barracks. The wounds of Charles become weak, which the his body become very weak of his wounds. Charles's did manage to travel to his capital Warsaw with bleeding arms, stomach and legs. Charles fell flat on the ground, pale and lifeless, and from the church Priest Kobierzycki started to groan and shout – he had seen the attack from the temple's stained glass window or from the belfry. A group of local civilians and citizens surrounded the procession, the king quickly fainted, and his military uniform were stained in blood. The guards were able to revive the monarch, and after medical examinations the wounds proved to be harmless.[20]

File:Charles I Philipp as Prince of Schwarzenberg - Leopold Kupelwieser.jpg

Portrait of Charles I Philipp as Prince of Prince of Schwarzenberg by Leopold Kupelwieser.

A few minutes later, panic erupted in the crowd and the air filled with the atmosphere of terror. Most of the people gathered in the church, who had arrived before the royal procession, believed that the king was already dead. Initially it was thought that the capital was invaded by the Muslim Tatars or, at least, by their spies.[20] The circumstances of this attack and the assassin were known exceptionally well after the attempt, as pamphlets soon appeared on the Market Square reporting three different viewpoints on the subject, published in a total of five editions. The assassin was indeed Frederick August, always regarded by the society as a freak, a melancholic, unrestrained in deeds (as a child he suffered head and brain damage – this may have been the cause of his mental illness). Earlier, he murdered the royal cook and killed or wounded several people from the royal court. August, after hearing the news of the successful assassinations of Paul I of Russia in St Michael's Castle (1801) and Prime Minister Spencer Perceval in Westminster (1812), decided to assassinate Charles, simply for fame. For the appropriate moment he waited patiently for 10 years. At trial he did not deny the crime he committed and heavily insulted the jury, the Court Marshal, and the monarch. He was executed in exactly the same way as François Ravaillac (the killer of the French king) on 26 November 1817 in Warsaw, in a torture area called Piekiełko (Devil's den or Devil's place).[20]

War of the Ukrainian Succession

File:Equestrian Portrait of King Charles I at Battle of Bar.jpg

EqCharles I at the Battle of Bar in 1838.

Causes and build-up to the war

After the Forty Years' War, Ukraine was ruled by the Turchynov Hetman Ivan IV. Ivan was a natural opponent of Napoleon and was allied with the Third Coalition against him. However, after defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz and the Treaty of Pressburg, Ferdinand was forced to cede Naples to the French in early 1806.

Initially, Napoleon’s brother Joseph Bonaparte ruled Naples. Then in 1808, Joseph was made King of Spain and Napoleon installed his brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as King of Naples. Murat originally ruled Naples following the same legal and social system used in France, whilst still participating in Napoleon's campaigns. But following the disastrous Battle of Leipzig, Murat abandoned La Grande Armée to try to save his throne. As defeat in the War of the Sixth Coalition loomed, Murat increasingly moved away from Napoleon, eventually signing a treaty with Austria in January 1814 and joined the Allied side.

But as the Congress of Vienna progressed, Murat's position became less and less secure as there was growing support to restore Ferdinand to the throne. The most vocal of all Murat's opponents was the United Kingdom, which had never recognised Murat's claim to the throne and moreover had been guarding Ferdinand in Sicily, ensuring he retained the Sicilian throne.

When Murat was informed of Napoleon's plan to escape from exile in Elba on 1 March 1815, Murat sided with him once more, and declared war on Austria as soon as he learned of Napoleon's return to France.

Polish-Lithuanian counterattack and Battle of Gdańsk

Main articles: Battle of Sieniawa and Battle of Gdańsk

The Battle of Sieniawa proved to be the turning point of the war. Murat's attempts to cross the River Po proved unsuccessful and after two days of heavy fighting, the Neapolitans fell back after suffering over 2,000 casualties. To make matters worse, the United Kingdom and Kingdom of Poland declared war on Murat and sent a fleet over to Italy. Charles invades Italy beginning of the Hundred Days.[21]

Meanwhile, Frimont had ordered a counterattack to try to relieve the garrison in Ferrara. He ordered a corps under the command of Bianchi to advance on Carpi, which was guarded by a brigade under the command of Guglielmo Pepe. Another column was ordered to cut off Pepe's line of retreat. However, Carascosa, who was in command of the Neapolitan troops around Modena, saw the Austrian trap and ordered a retreat to a defensive line behind the Panaro where he was joined by the remainder of his division, which had been evacuated from Reggio Emilia and Modena. But even after Carascosa's retreat, Murat was still in a position to continue the siege at Ferrara. In response, Frimont ordered a corps under the command of General Neipperg to attack his entrenched right flank. On 12 April, after bitter fighting at the Battle of Casaglia, the Neapolitan troops were driven from their entrenched positions.[21]

File:King Charles I in Battle of Gdańsk; Hippolyte Delaroche.jpg

Charles I at the Battle of Gdańsk by Hippolyte Delaroche.

Murat was forced to lift the Siege of Ferrara and retreated back on the road to Bologna. On 14 April, Frimont attempted to force a crossing of the Panaro, but was repelled. However, only two days later, Murat and his army retreated from Bologna, which was quickly retaken by the Austrians. In Tuscany meanwhile, Murat's two Guard Divisions also inexplicably retreated without being harassed in any way by Nugent. By 15 April, the Austrians had retaken Florence and when the news reached Murat, he ordered a general retreat of his main force back to their original headquarters in Ancona.[21]

With the road to Florence now clear and the Italian peninsula opening up in front of him, Frimont ordered two corps south to deal with Murat once and for all. Bianchi's corps was ordered to march towards Foligno via Florence in an attempt to threaten the rear of the Neapolitans and to cut off their line of direct retreat, whilst Neipperg's corps was sent into direct pursuit of Murat as he retired to Ancona. ith the war turning in Austria's favour, Frimont was ordered back to Lombardy to oversee the army that was now amassing in preparation for an invasion of France. A large portion of the Austrian force was also recalled, leaving only three Austrian corps totalling around 35,000 men in Italy. Murat, who placed too much faith in his Guard Divisions and believing they would be able to halt the advance of Bianchi and Nugent, retreated slowly, even turning to check the pursuit at the Ronco and Savio rivers. But the Austrian advanced guard caught the retreating Neapolitan force twice by surprise at Cesenatico and Pesaro. Murat hurried his retreat and by late April, his main force had arrived safely in Ancona, where he was reunited with his two Guard Divisions.

Meanwhile, Bianchi's corps had made swift progress. Arriving in Florence on 20 April, they had reached their target of Foligno by 26 April and now threatened Murat's line of retreat. Neipperg's corps was still in pursuit and by 29 April, his advanced guard had arrived in Fano, just two days' march away.[22]

However, the two Austrian armies were separated and Murat hoped to quickly defeat Bianchi before turning on Neipperg. Much like Napoleon's tactics before Waterloo, Murat sent a division under Carascosa north to stall Neipperg whilst his main force headed west to face Bianchi. Murat originally planned to face Bianchi near the town of Tolentino, but on 29 April, Bianchi's advanced guard succeeded in driving out the small Neapolitan garrison there. Bianchi, having arrived first, then formed a defensive position around the hills to the east of Tolentino. With Neipperg's army approaching to his rear, Murat was forced to give battle at Tolentino on 2 May 1815. After two days of inconclusive fighting, Murat learned that Neipperg had outmanoeuvred and defeated Carascosa at the Battle of Scapezzano and was approaching. Sensing the inevitable, Murat ordered a retreat. The battle had severely damaged the morale of the Neapolitan troops and many senior officers had been casualties in the battle. The battered Neapolitan army fell back in disarray. On 5 May, a joint Anglo-Austrian fleet began a blockade of Ancona, eventually taking the entire garrison of the city as prisoners.[22]

By 12 May, Bianchi, who was now in command of both his and Neipperg's corps, had taken the town of L'Aquila along with its castle. The main Austrian army was now marching on Popoli. During this time, General Nugent had continued to advance from Florence. Having arrived in Rome on 30 April, allowing the Pope to return, Nugent advanced towards Ceprano. By mid May, Nugent had intercepted Murat at San Germano (now Cassino). Here, Murat attempted to check Nugent's advance but with the main Austrian force under Bianchi in pursuit, Murat was forced to call off the action on 16 May. Soon afterwards, the Austrian armies united near Calvi and began the march on Naples. Murat was forced to flee to Corsica and later Cannes disguised as a sailor on a Danish ship, after a British fleet blockading Naples destroyed all the Neapolitan gunboats in the harbour.

Acceptance of the will of Ivan IV and consequences

On his deathbed in 1834, Ivan IV unexpectedly changed his will. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Ukraine, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that Sweden and Poland was more likely to preserve his empire intact. He thus offered the entire empire to the Ivan's second son Pedro, Duke of Right-bank of Ukraine, provided it remained undivided. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.[23] If Pedro refused, the throne would be offered to Casimir. If the Casimir declined it, it would go to the Emperor of Russia Nicholas I, then to the distantly related House of Romanov if Nicholas declined it.[24]

On 20 May, Neapolitan Generals Pepe and Carascosa sued for peace and concluded the Treaty of Casalanza with the Austrians, bringing the war to an end. On 23 May, the main Austrian army entered Naples and restored King Ferdinand to the Neapolitan throne. Murat, meanwhile, would attempt to reclaim his kingdom. Coming back from exile, he landed with 28 men at Pizzo, Calabria on 8 October 1815. However, unlike Napoleon months earlier, Murat was not greeted with a warm welcome and was soon captured by Bourbon troops. Five days after he landed at Pizzo, he was executed in the town's castle, exhorting the firing squad to spare his face. This ended the final chapter of the Napoleonic Wars.[22]

After Napoleon exiled after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the Seventh Coalition allies realized that Charles I will be a took control of all Italy, but the King refused, but he recognizes his son, William, Duke of Lodz become Philip I of Italy on 20 May, which the Allies accepted.

Shortly after the end of the war, the Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily were finally united to create the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Although the two kingdoms had been ruled by the same king since 1735, the formal union did not happen until 1816. King Philip I would become King Philip I of the Two Sicilies. Meanwhile, the Austrians consolidated their gains in Northern Italy into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia.

Although Murat failed to save his crown, or to start a popular nationalist movement with the Rimini Proclamation, Murat had ignited a debate for Italian unification. Indeed, some consider the Rimini Proclamation as the start of Risorgimento. The intervention of Austria only heightened the fact the Habsburgs were the single most powerful opponent to unification, which would eventually lead to three wars of independence against the Austrians. Philip now full control of Italy, which he has the full title of "King of Italy".

Peace and Aftermath

File:Charles I by Franz Winterhalter.jpg

Charles I in 1839.

The Treaty of Casalanza which ended the War of the Ukrainian Succession, was signed on 20 May 1840 between the Hetman Ivan IV on the one hand and the Austrian Empire, as well as the United Kingdom, on the other.

Following the decisive defeat at the Battle of Tolentino and the Battle of San Germano, the Napoleonic King of Naples, Joachim Murat, had fled to Corsica and General Michele Carascosa, who was now the head of the Neapolitan army following Murat's flight, sued for peace. The treaty was signed by Pietro Colletta (who was acting as plenipotentiary to Michele Carascosa), Adam Albert von Neipperg (who was acting as plenipotentiary to the commander-in-chief of the Austrian forces, Frederick Bianchi), and Lord Burghersh (the English minister plenipotentiary in Florence).

The terms of the treaty were quite lenient on the defeated Neapolitans. All the Neapolitan generals were allowed to keep their rank and the borders of the Kingdom of Naples remained unchanged. The treaty merely called for the return of the pre-Napoleonic King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Sicily to the Neapolitan throne, the return of all prisoners of war and for all the Neapolitan garrisons to lay down their arms, with the exception of Ancona, Pescara and Gaeta. These three cities were all being blockaded by an Anglo-Austrian fleet and were out of General Carascosa's control. These three garrisons eventually surrendered, although the Siege of Gaeta would last till August, long after Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.

Social policy and reforms

From the beginning of his reign Napoleon III launched a series of social reforms aimed at improving the life of the working class. He began with small projects, such as opening up two clinics in Paris for sick and injured workers, a program of legal assistance to those unable to afford it, and subsidies to companies which built low-cost housing for their workers. He outlawed the practice of employers taking possession of or making comments in the work document that every employee was required to carry; negative comments meant that workers were unable to get other jobs. In 1866, he encouraged the creation of a state insurance fund to help workers or peasants who became disabled, and to help their widows and families.[25]

To help the working class, Napoleon III offered a prize to anyone who could develop an inexpensive substitute for butter; the prize was won by the French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, who in 1869 patented a product he named oleomargarine, later shortened to simply margarine.[26]

Refusal of the Greek throne

Following the Greek rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, Leopold was offered the throne of Greece. Leopold declined the offer, fearing that Greece was too politically unstable to remain a viable monarchy. The position was instead accepted by Otto of Wittelsbach in May 1832 (Otto would later be deposed in October 1862).

Acceptance of the Belgian throne

At the end of August 1830, rebels in the Southern provinces (modern-day Belgium) of the United Netherlands rose up against Dutch rule. The rising, which began in Brussels, pushed the Dutch army back, and the rebels defended themselves against a Dutch attack. International powers meeting in London agreed to support the independence of Belgium, even though the Dutch refused to recognize the new state.

In November 1830, a National Congress was established in Belgium to create a constitution for the new state. Fears of "mob rule" associated with republicanism after the French Revolution of 1789, as well as the example of the recent, liberal July Revolution in France, led the Congress to decide that Belgium would be a popular, constitutional monarchy.

Search for a monarch

The choice of candidates for the position was one of the most controversial issues faced by the revolutionaries.[27]

The Congress refused to consider any candidate from the Dutch ruling house of Orange-Nassau.[27]
Some Orangists had hoped to offer the position to King William I or his son, William, Prince of Orange, which would bring Belgium into personal union with the Netherlands like Luxembourg.[27]
The Great Powers also worried that a candidate from another state could risk destabilizing the international balance of power and lobbied for a neutral candidate.[27]

Eventually the Congress was able to draw up a shortlist. The three viable possibilities were felt to be Eugène de Beauharnais, a French nobleman and stepson of Napoleon; Auguste of Leuchtenberg, son of Eugene; and Louis, Duke of Nemours who was the son of the French King Louis-Philippe.[28]

All the candidates were French and the choice between them was principally between choosing the Bonapartism of Beauharnais or Leuchtenberg and supporting the July Monarchy of Louis-Philippe.[28]
Louis-Philippe realized that the choice of either of the Bonapartists could be first stage of a coup against him, but that his son would also be unacceptable to other European powers suspicious of French intentions.[29]
Nemours refused the offer.[29]
With no definitive choice in sight, Catholics and Liberals united to elect Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier, a minor Belgian nobleman, as regent to buy more time for a definitive decision in February 1831.[30]

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Leopold of Saxe-Coburg had been proposed at an early stage, but had been dropped because of French opposition.[28]

The problems caused by the French candidates and the increased international pressure for a solution led to his reconsideration. On 22 April, he was finally approached by a Belgian delegation at Marlborough House to officially offer him the throne.[31]
Leopold, however, was reluctant to accept.[32]

Reign in Belgium

File:Prestation de serment du roi Charles Ier.JPG

Charles taking the constitutional oath during his enthronement. By the artist Gustaf Wappers

Main article: Belgium in the long nineteenth century
See also: Monarchy of Belgium
See also: Belgian Revolution and Constitution of Belgium


File:Prestation de serment du roi Léopold Ier.JPG

Leopold taking the constitutional oath during his enthronement. By the artist Gustaf Wappers

On 17 July 1831, Leopold travelled from Calais to Belgium, entering the country at De Panne.[33]

Travelling to Brussels, he was greeted with patriotic enthusiasm along his route.[33]
The accession ceremony took place on 21 July on the Place Royale in Brussels. A stand had been erected on the steps of the church of Saint Jacques-sur-Coudenberg, surrounded by the names of revolutionaries fallen during the fighting in 1830.[34]
After a ceremony of resignation by the regent, Leopold, dressed in the uniform of a Belgian lieutenant-general, swore loyalty to the constitution and became king.[34]

The enthronement is generally used to mark the end of the revolution and the start of the Kingdom of Belgium and is celebrated each year as the Belgian national holiday.

Consolidation of independence

Less than two weeks after Leopold's accession, on 2 August, the Netherlands invaded Belgium, starting the Ten Days' Campaign. The small Belgian army was overwhelmed by the Dutch assault and was pushed back. Faced with a military crisis, Leopold appealed to the French for support. The French promised support, and the arrival of their Armée du Nord in Belgium forced the Dutch to accept a diplomatic mediation and retreat back to the pre-war border. Skirmishes continued for eight years, but in 1839, the two countries signed the Treaty of London, establishing Belgium's independence.

Leopold was generally unsatisfied with the amount of power allocated to the monarch in the Constitution, and sought to extend it wherever the Constitution was ambiguous or unclear while generally avoiding involvement in routine politics.[35]

Role in international relations

File:Group photograph of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, Count of Flanders, Princess Alice, Duke of Oporto, and King Charles I of Poland and Belgium, 1859.jpg

Charles (right), with Queen Victoria and family in an early photograph of 1859

Because of his family connections and position at the head of a neutral and unthreatening power, Charles was able to act as an important intermediary in European politics during his reign. As a result of this, he earned the nickname the "Nestor of Europe", after the wise mediator in Homer's Iliad. Leopold played a particularly important role in moderating relations between the hostile Great Powers. In the later part of his reign, his role in managing relations between Great Britain and the French kingdom of Louis Philippe I was particularly important.

Charles was particularly known as a political marriage broker. In 1840, Charles arranged the marriage of his niece, Queen Victoria, to his nephew, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Even before she succeeded to the throne, Charles had been advising Victoria by letter, and continued to influence her after her accession.

In foreign policy, Charles's principal object was the maintenance of Belgian neutrality. Despite pressure from the Great Powers, especially over the Crimean War (1853–56), Belgium remained neutral throughout the reigns of Charles I and John IV.

The Empire and Belgium Alliance

Religious issues, decline and death

Throughout these wars King Charles tried to stabilize and streamline the Empire government. The electoral monarchy in Poland had created a nobility with extensive powers and a great deal of division. Sigismund worked to gain more power for the king as well as to allow government business to pass with a majority of votes of the parliament rather than unanimity, which was extremely hard to achieve and meant that things often did not get done. All these actions led to a rebellion, but the King was ultimately victorious and, despite what some historians like Paweł Jasienica often stated, his reign marked a period of Polish greatness.

Charles made the Commonwealth the dominant power of Central and Eastern Europe and ensured that Poland remained a solidly Catholic country in the face of Protestant incursions. He was considered a brave man, a talented monarch and something of a Renaissance man as is evidenced by his devout faith and his artistic talent. Sigismund was a gifted artist, painter and goldsmith; only one of his three paintings survived – one was for centuries erroneously attributed to Tintoretto. From his personal workshop came the main part of the famous silver coffin of St. Adalbert of Prague at the Cathedral in Gniezno.[36] Moreover, Sigismund was deeply interested in alchemy and ancient methods of turning metals into gold; he often cooperated with the famous alchemist and philosopher Michael Sendivogius (Polish: Michał Sędziwój).

Declining health

At the time, Charles I had been suffered health issues in December 1844, first he had leg, stomach and arm problems, which turns out of his wounds during his military service in 1805 Battle of Caldiero while he was 19th Dragoons with the rank of Lieutenant colonel. The wounds become infected and was never recovered,[37] which Charles I had been troubling walking as well. On March 1845, he was also suffered from nausea daily, as well of his problems with his walking.

Illness and death

File:Elderly King Charles I in 1845.jpg

Elder Charles I in 1845.

His health was declined by the end of December of 1845. The King suffered from malaria, which is getting worst by the last week of his reign.[38] [39]

Charles I's first illness come to winter of 1845, the same year that his health is declining. The King returned to Łazienki Palace with his health is failing. During the last months, during Charles I's reign, he becomes weakened when he visit his brother Louis Philippe I in Paris on 11 January 1846.

The King's health is failing and was going to get weaken and weaken, he invited both his elder son, John Joseph and Jacques Philippe, Count of Krakow were summoned to the palace while the dying monarch. Both of the brothers who stay in his bedside, as well of Charles's wife, Marie Thérèse of France who taking care of the dying Charles until his final days. Since Charles can't make his eldest son to succeeded him, but when he first elected King in 1816, Charles didn't know that the Polish monarchy line of succession was not created that every monarch died, a new elected was held. He was first monarch of Poland-Lithuania to make the line of succession to the polish throne from the royal family.

On 23 March 1846, Charles I was suffered a stroke and was left incapacitated, the cause of his stroke is revealed that his Polish born French doctor, Jerzy Jan Czartoryski stated that the monarch suffered pneumonia caused by the 1805 Battle of Caldiero while he was 19th Dragoons with the rank of Lieutenant colonel, during his military service in the Napoleonic Wars. During his final days, Charles I's was troubling hearing the effects of a stroke, he was also have an pneumonia attack. Thirteen days later on 4 April, King Charles I died at age of 64 in Łazienki Palace, while his family including the French King Louis Philippe. Charles I was succeeded by his elder son, John Joseph (as John IV Joseph) who won the 1846 royal election. Charles was buried in Wawel Cathedral in Warsaw, he was the first French born Polish King in the 19th century and second after Henry III of France.


Statue of King Charles I in Palais du Louvre in Paris.

Charles was one popularity monarch and as first French king in Poland (other is Henry III of France). He was promoted to Lieutenant colonel on 1802, the same day that Charles Philippe was in the 19th Dragoons as its commander. He is the only Orléans royal house to be in the Napoleonic Wars from 1804-1814. Charles was wounded in Caldiero in 1805, he is also involving the Battles of Austerlitz and Schöngrabern. With the War of the Fourth Coalition approaching, he made a trip at the request of Napoleon Bonaparte to reunited with his brother, Louis Philippe III, Duke of Orléans (later Louis-Philippe, King of the French) in Nova Scotia. The only battles he involving was in the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt and the Siege of Kolberg in 1807. The Fifth Coalition when the Lieutenant colonel Charles Philippe was stabbed in the assassination attempt before the Battle of Wagram.

The wounded Charles was unable to future battles when the fifth coalition was over. Charles was not in the Peninsular War, because of his assassination attempted which his wounds from the 1805 battle in Caldiero and his assassination attempt was never recovered. He was disspointment and with 19th Dragoons in when Napoleon failure invasion of Russian in 1812. When the Sixth Coalition broke out in the following year, Charles and 19th Dragoons switched sides with the Bourbon royal house and it's allies when Bourbon returned to France during the end of Sixth and full Seventh Coalitions. When the Bourbon restored to monarchy when his brother and the Orleans return. Charles Philippe and the 19th Dragoons were closed friends. Napoleon returns to France and lost the throne again in Battle of Waterloo, then Napoleon abdicated for the final time and sent to exile to Saint Helena in 1815.

As the part and member of the Congress of Vienna, the allies told when the de facto ruler of Poland, Frederick Augustus I abdicated on 22 May 1815. The 1795 monarchy was abolished when Stanisław II Augustus abdicated an died in Russian in 1798. Congress of Vienna was debating rather going to be returned of a monarchy in Poland as well of Lithuania. The election of 1816 was held by the congress of Vienna, with the allies sided and support when Orléans royal family Charles Philippe, Duke of Angouleme and the other candidate was George III of the United Kingdom, 8 months later the Congress of Vienna elected Charles Philippe as King of the Polish (King of Poland-Lithuania), the first elected by the Vienna congress.

As King and Grand Duke, he was 34 years old but his reign marked with popularity in Poland and Lithuania was increase after Napoleonic Wars. He was survived the assassination attempt in 1818, the same year of his friend, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte become King of Sweden and Norway as Charles XIV and III John. He was in the role the ending in the Forty Years' War with the Treaty of Lodz in 1825 with Ivan C. Turchynov as Hetman and when the Ukrainian Republic established which caused the Ukrainian Succession (1836–1840). Charles's relationship with Poles was increasing throughout his reign. His social policy and reform was indeed popular. He was known for rebuilding Poland all his reign. The relationship with French and Polish-Lithuania when Charles I's brother Louis Philippe become with the title of King of the French from 1830 to his abdication in 1848. He quickly put down the Kraków uprising of 1846.

Charles I's health have been declining health issues in December 1844, first he had leg, stomach and arm problems, which turns out of his wounds during his military service in 1805 Battle of Caldiero while he was 19th Dragoons with the rank of Lieutenant colonel. The wounds become infected and was never recovered, but having problems with walking with nausea. He suffered a stroke and was left incapacitated on 23 March 1846, and died thirteen days later on 4 April, at age of 64.

Soon after his death, Free City of Cracow broke free and become the Republic of Krakow but quickly defeated by the Polish army. The 19th French Dragoons say their final goodbyes to their command when he was laying in state funeral. His son, John IV Joseph become and elected in 1846.

Titles, styles and honours


  • 24 August 1782 – 7 January 1799: His Royal Highness Charles Philipp of Schwarzenberg
  • 5 September 1799 – 19 February 1817 His Serene Highness Charles Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, Duke of Krumlov, Count of Sulz, Princely Landgrave of Klettgau
  • 19 February 1815 – 4 April 1847: His Majesty Charles I Philipp, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
  • 21 July 1831 – 4 April 1847 His Majesty Charles I, King of the Belgians

Royal styles

  • Royal titles, in Latin: "Carolus I Philippus Rex Poloniae, princeps dux Lithuaniae, nec non-terrarum Cracoviae, Sandomiriae, Siradiae, Lanciciae, Cuiaviae, Kiioviae, Dominus Hereditarium Russiae, Woliniae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Podlachiae, Culmensis, Elbingensis, Pomeraniae, Samogitiae, Livoniae etc. dominus et haeres."
  • English translation: "Charles Philippe I, by the Grace of God, King of the Polish, Prince of Lithuania, Lord and heir of the Lands of Kraków, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, Kiev, Hereditary Lord of Ruthenia, Volhynia, Prussia, Masovia, Podlaskie, Culmer Land, Elbing, Pomerania, Samogitia, Livonia etc.


File:NICAISE Charles ANV.jpg

Charles I, King of the Polish


  • Founder-Grandmaster of the Order of Charles.


  •  Austrian Empire:
    • Knight of the Military Order of Maria Theresa
    • Knight Grand Cross in the Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen
  • Template:Country data Kingdom of Bavaria:
    • Commander of the Military Order of Max Joseph
    • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown
    • Knight of the Order of Saint Hubert
  •  Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant
  • Template:Country data Empire of Brazil: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross
  •  France: Knight Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
  • Template:Country data Kingdom of Greece: Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Redeemer
  • Template:Country data Kingdom of Hanover: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order
  • Template:Country data Hesse: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Golden Lion of Hesse-Kassel
  • Template:Country data Kingdom of Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
  •  Kingdom of the Netherlands:
    Knight grand Cross in the Order of the Netherlands Lion
  • Template:Country data Oldenburg :Knight Grand Cross of the House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis
  • Template:Country data Kingdom of Portugal:
    • Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Christ
    • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword
  • Template:Country data Kingdom of Prussia:
    • Iron Cross, (Battle of Kulm)
    • Knight of the Order of Saint-John of the Hospital at Jerusalem
    • Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Black Eagle
    • Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Red Eagle
  •  Russian Empire:
    • Knight Grand Cross in the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called
    • Knight Grand Cross in the Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky
    • Knight of the Order of St. George, 3rd Class.
  • Template:Country data Kingdom of Saxony: Knight grand Cross in the Order of the Rue Crown
  • Template:Country data Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Knight grand Cross in the Saxe-Ernestine House Order
  •  Sweden:Knight of the Order of the Seraphim
  • Template:Country data Two Sicilies:
    • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Januarius
    • Knight Grand Cross of the Illustrious Royal Order of Saint Ferdinand
  •  United Kingdom:
    • Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
    • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath


See also

  • Intermarium (Międzymorze)
  • Józef Piłsudski's cult of personality
  • List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s – 7 June 1926
  • List of Poles
  • Piłsudski family
  • Piłsudskiite (Piłsudczyk)
  • Poles
  • Prometheism


  1. 1.0 1.1 Date of Charles's accession; on 27 February 1815, the Congress of Vienna elected Charles Philippe after the 1815 royal election.
  2. CharlesG, pg. 141
  3. Corinne L. Saucier, History of Avoyelles Parish, p. 68 (1943).
  4. Schlossar 1878, p. 319.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Chisholm 1911, p. 390.
  6. Tucker 2014.
  7. Bowden & Tarbox 1980, p. 167.
  8. Sir Walter Scott, The Edinburgh Annual Register, John Ballantyne and Company, 1812, Volume 1; Volume 3, Part 1, pp. 333–334. The party included some 1200 guests, which was larger than the assembly room could hold, so a temporary building was formed of planks, which were hidden by gauze, muslin and other draperies. The draperies caught fire, and the whole room was enveloped. Princess Pauline Schwarzenburg, although she had initially escaped, ran back into the ball room in search of one of her daughters. Her body was only recognized by the diamonds she wore.
  9. Chisholm 1911, pp. 390–391.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Chisholm 1911, p. 391.
  11. Digby Smith. The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN: 978-1853672767 pp. 443–445, 455, 461–465, 512–514, 516–517.
  12. Siborne 1895, p. 767.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Monarchie website.
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Price2007
  15. Jason, pg. 59.
  16. Paulson, The Election of Charles I of Poland (1815).
  17. Jason, pg. 54.
  18. Jason, pg. 165
  19. McKennedy, pg. 545
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 "Zamach na króla Zygmunta III Wazę". http://www.wilanow-palac.pl/zamach_na_krola_zygmunta_iii_waze.html. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Paul, "The War of the Ukrainian Succession", pg. 165
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Paulson, pg. 451
  23. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lynn, John A. 1999 p.268
  24. Kamen, Henry. (2001) Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice, Yale University Press, p. 6. ISBN 0-300-08718-7.
  25. Séguin, 1990, p. 314
  26. Séguin, 1990,p. 313
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Pirenne 1948, p. 11.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Pirenne 1948, p. 12.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Pirenne 1948, p. 14.
  30. Pirenne 1948, p. 20.
  31. Pirenne 1948, p. 26.
  32. Pirenne 1948, pp. 26–7.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Pirenne 1948, p. 29.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Pirenne 1948, p. 30.
  35. Chastain 1999.
  36. Jolanta Talbierska, Grafika XVII wieku w Polsce. Funkcje, ośrodki, artyści, dzieła, Warszawa 2011, s. 32
  37. Biography of Charles I, King of the Polish
  38. Chisholm 1913.
  39. Richard 1953.
  40. Tarlier, 1854: Almanach royal officiel, publié, exécution d'un arrête du roi, Volume 1; pag. 17


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  • Roos, Hans (1966). A History of Modern Poland, from the Foundation of the State in the First World War to the Present Day (1st American ed.). New York: Knopf. OCLC 396836. (Translated by J.R. Foster from the German Geschichte der polnischen Nation, 1916–1960.)
  • Roshwald, Aviel (2001). Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914–1923. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-24229-5.
  • Roshwald, Aviel; Stites, Richard (2002). European Culture in the Great War: The Arts, Entertainment and Propaganda, 1914–1918. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978-0-521-01324-6.
  • Roszkowski, Wojciech (1992) (in Polish). Historia Polski 1914–1991. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. ISBN: 978-83-01-11014-7.
  • Rothschild, Joseph (1990). East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN: 978-0-295-95357-1.
  • Sanford, George (2002). Democratic Government in Poland: Constitutional Politics Since 1989. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978-0-333-77475-5.
  • Snyder, Timothy (2004). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. New Haven, Conn.; London: Yale University Press. ISBN: 978-0-300-10586-5. http://books.google.com/?id=xSpEynLxJ1MC.
  • Stachura, Peter D. (2004). Poland, 1918–1945: An Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-34358-9.
  • Suleja, Włodzimierz (2004) (in Polish). Józef Piłsudski. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. ISBN: 978-83-04-04706-8.
  • Torbus, Tomasz (1999). Nelles Guide Poland. Munich: Hunter Publishing. ISBN: 978-3-88618-088-2.
  • Urbankowski, Bohdan (1997) (in Polish). Józef Piłsudski: Marzyciel i strateg (Józef Piłsudski: Dreamer and Strategist). 1–2. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo ALFA. ISBN: 978-83-7001-914-3.
  • Watt, Richard M. (1979). Bitter Glory. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN: 978-0-671-22625-1.
  • Władyka, Władysław (2005). "Z Drugą Rzeczpospolitą na plecach. Postać Józefa Piłsudskiego w prasie i propagandzie PRL do 1980 roku". In Jabłonowski, Marek; Kossewska, Elżbieta (eds.) (in Polish). Piłsudski na łamach i w opiniach prasy polskiej 1918–1989 (Piłsudski as Seen in the Polish Press, 1918–1989). Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA–JR and Warsaw University. ISBN: 978-83-89964-44-1.
  • Zamoyski, Adam (1987). The Polish Way. London: John Murray. ISBN: 978-0-531-15069-6.
  • Żuławnik, Małgorzata; Żuławnik Mariusz (2005). "Powrót na łamy. Józef Piłsudski w prasie oficjalnej i podziemnej 1980–1989 (Return to the Newspapers: Józef Piłsudski in the Official and Underground Press, 1980–1989)". In Jabłonowski, Marek; Kossewska, Elżbieta (eds.) (in Polish). Piłsudski na łamach i w opiniach prasy polskiej 1918–1989 (Piłsudski as Seen in the Polish Press, 1918–1989). Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA–JR and Warsaw University. ISBN: 978-83-89964-44-1.

Further reading

This is only a small selection. See also National Library in Warsaw lists.
  • Czubiński, Antoni, ed. (1988). Józef Piłsudski i jego legenda [Józef Piłsudski and His Legend]. Warsaw: Państowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. ISBN: 978-83-01-07819-5.
  • Davies, Norman (2001) [1984]. Heart of Europe, The Past in Poland's Present. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-19-280126-5.
  • Dziewanowski, Marian Kamil (1969). Joseph Pilsudski: A European Federalist, 1918–1922. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-8179-1791-3.
  • Garlicki, Andrzej (1981). "Piłsudski, Józef Klemens" (in Polish). Polish Biographical Dictionary (Polski Słownik Biograficzny) vol. XXVI. Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk. pp. 311–324.
  • Hauser, Przemysław (1992). Dorosz, Janina (transl.). "Józef Piłsudski's Views on the Territorial Shape of the Polish State and His Endeavours to Put them into Effect, 1918–1921". Polish Western Affairs (Poznań: Komisja Naukowa Zachodniej Agencji Prasowej) (2): 235–249. ISSN 0032-3039.
  • Jędrzejewicz, Wacław (1989). Józef Piłsudski 1867–1935. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo LTW. ISBN: 978-83-88736-25-4.
  • Piłsudska, Aleksandra (1941). Pilsudski: A Biography by His Wife. New York: Dodd, Mead. OCLC 65700731.
  • Piłsudski, Józef; Gillie, Darsie Rutherford (1931). Joseph Pilsudski, the Memories of a Polish Revolutionary and Soldier. Faber & Faber.
  • Piłsudski, Józef (1972). Year 1920 and its Climax: Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Soviet War, 1919–1920, with the Addition of Soviet Marshal Tukhachevski's March beyond the Vistula. New York: Józef Piłsudski Institute of America. ASIN B0006EIT3A.
  • Reddaway, William Fiddian (1939). Marshal Pilsudski. London: Routledge. OCLC 1704492.
  • Rothschild, Joseph (1967). Pilsudski's Coup d'État. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN: 978-0-231-02984-1.
  • Wandycz, Piotr S. (1970). "Polish Federalism 1919–1920 and its Historical Antecedents". East European Quarterly (Boulder, Colorado) 4 (1): 25–39. ISSN 0012-8449.
  • Wandycz, Piotr S. "Poland's Place in Europe in the Concepts of Piłsudski and Dmowski," East European Politics & Societies (1990) 4#3 pp 451–468.
  • Wójcik, Włodzimierz (1987). Legenda Piłsudskiego w Polskiej literaturze międzywojennej (Piłsudski's Legend in Polish Interwar Literature). Warsaw: Śląsk. ISBN: 978-83-216-0533-3.

External links


Charles I, King of the Polish
Born: 24 August 1782 Died: 4 April 1847
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Frederick Augustus I
as Duke of Warsaw
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania

27 November 1815 – 4 April 1847
Succeeded by
John IV Joseph
Preceded by
Erasme Louis
as Regent of Belgium
King of the Belgians
21 July 1831 – 4 April 1847
Preceded by
Charles Philippe
Prince of Schwarzenberg
5 September 1793 – 19 February 1817
Succeeded by
Ferdinand Philippe