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This article is about first Dutch monarch. For other men at some time in history called "William I of Orange-Nassau", see William of Orange (disambiguation). For other uses, see William I (disambiguation).
William I
Joseph Paelinck - William I, King of the Netherlands - Google Art Project.JPG
King William I in Coronation Robes by Joseph Paelinck, ca. 1818–19
King of the Netherlands
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Reign 16 March 1815 – 7 October 1840[1]
Inauguration 30 March 1814
Predecessor Himself as Sovereign Prince
Successor William II
Prince of Orange-Nassau
Reign 9 April 1806 – 16 March 1815
Predecessor William V
Successor William II
Prince of Orange-Nassau
Reign 25 February 1803 – 27 October 1806
Duke of Limburg
Reign 5 September 1839 – 7 October 1840
Predecessor Francis II, H.R.E. (1794)
Successor William II
Born 24 August 1772(1772-08-24)
Vienna, Austria, Holy Roman Empire
Died 12 December 1843 (aged 71)
Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia
Burial
Imperial Crypt, Vienna, Archduchy of Austria
Spouse Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia
Countess Henrietta d'Oultremont de Wégimont (morganatic)
Issue William II of the Netherlands
Prince William Frederick
Prince Frederick
Princess Pauline
Marianne, Princess Albert of Prussia
Full name
Charles William Frederick Johan
House Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Luisa of Spain
Religion Dutch Reformed Church
prev. Roman Catholicism
Occupation Military (Calvary)

William I (William Frederick, Prince of Orange-Nassau; Dutch: Willem Frederik; Polish: William Fryderyk; German: Wilhelm Friedrich; Lithuanian: Vilius Frederikas; 24 August 1775 – 12 December 1843), known as "the Peace-King"[2][3], was an Austrian field marshal[4], first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 16 March 1815 and King of Italy from 1819 until his voluntarily abdication in 1840. He was the youngest field marshals to command the Austrian forces.

He was born in Vienna in the Archduchy of Austria to Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and Maria Luisa of Spain. He was the 12th ancestor descendant of Emperor Charles VII but he could be the next ruler of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. To his surprised, he was an older brother to Emperor Francis II, who had made as Emperor in the Holy Roman Empire, later Emperor of Austria. He also witness the French Revolutionary Wars by the overthrow of King Louis XVI in 1793 and thinking he was going to military.

During his military service at age nine, the youngest person who in the military by the permission of his uncle, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. He was at given the rank of field marshal of the Austrian Army during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded two times in the stomach and 2 times in the legs and one in the arm at the battle of Landshut in 1809. By the death of his father in 1813, he was succeeded him as Prince of Schwarzenberg, a few weeks later that he was victory at the Battle of Leipzig, by the following of Napoleon's abdication in 1814 and went to exile. When Napoleon returned to power in 1815, Emperor Francis I ordered Karl Philipp that he will defeated Napoleon for good, he thought the battles of Quatre Bras. At the battle in Waterloo, the defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French, and marked the end of his Hundred Days return from exile. At the time, Williams returned to Netherlands where he was Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands in 1813 until 1815.

During his reign in Germany, he was ruler (as Fürst) of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806 and of the Principality of Orange-Nassau in the year 1806 and from 1813 until 1815. In 1813 he proclaimed himself 'Sovereign Prince' of the "United Netherlands." He proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands and Duke of Luxembourg on 16 March 1815. In the same year on 9 June William I became also the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and after 1839 he was furthermore the Duke of Limburg. He is the role of the three major wars, the Forty Years' War, Belgian Revolution, and War of the Ukrainian Succession. He was one of the most popular monarch in Polish since John III Sobieski. His first loss is the Belgian Revolution in 1830 when the Eupropean revolutions of 1830, which Polish King Stanislaus III Albert succeeded the Belgium throne.

Though always at war, William was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1836, "but most greedy of peace and quiet."[5] Charles abdicated in 1839. The thrones of Poland and Lithuania passed to William's older brother Jan Joseph, whereas the Kingdom of the Netherlands was inherited by his elder son William. The two empires would remain allies until the 20th century. William was weak and having last illness, but after 25 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a city of Berlin, Prussia where he died aged 68, after suffering a Stomach cancer. He was buried in Imperial Crypt in Vienna.

Early life

Portrait of William (1778)

Young William (sitting) and his elder brother John Joseph (standing) in 1790

Youth

Archduke William Frederick was born in the early hours of the morning on 24 August 1775 in Vienna,[6]

was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain.[citation needed] His brother, Jan Joseph (1773–1850) was born few years earlier than William. William Frederick was honest and caring person. He was the 12th descendant of Emperor Charles VII but he could be the next ruler of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, but he reign any rights to the Imperial throne. But he declined.

Prince William, as members of his family called him. His parents, Emperor Leopold II and Princess Wilhelmina, already had two children. At the young age, his father, Johann Nepomuk Anton died on on February 1805 and Karl Philipp succeeded his father as Prince of Schwarzenberg during the war against French Empire.

Childhood

Even as a young boy, he was bright and showed much promise in the military field; General Prince Charles Stamford, mathematician Leonhard Euler and historian Herman Tollius were among his tutors. After military training in Brunswick, where his cousin once removed was reigning duke, Prince Charles began active military service in 1795 when the States-General granted him the rank of lieutenant-general of the cavalry and grand master of artillery. In 1793, he was called to war when the Republic had to be defended against the French. He was an inspiring leader and was usually in the forefront. Prince Frederick took upon himself the defense of the northwestern part of Brabant. Later, he served under his older brother at Veurne (Furnes) and Menin (Menen). While fighting in the latter battle at Flemish Wervik, on 12/13 September 1793, Charles suffered an injury when he was shot in the shoulder; this was an injury he never fully recovered from. In 1794, he was appointed general of the cavalry.

When his brother, Francis succeeded the Imperial throne in 1792, Charles Philipp travel to his brother's coronation. After the coronation, he travel to the Netherlands after he become Prince of Orange.

Education

Prince Charles was tutored by the Countess of Genlis with Louis Philippe (future first President of France), beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; it is probably during this period that Louis Philippe picked up his slightly Voltairean[needs to be explained] brand of Catholicism. When Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1791, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries.

Early military service

Portrait of Young Prince William Frederick, Prince of Orange in 1792.

Like his younger brother Prince Frederick of Orange-Nassau he was tutored by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler and the Dutch historian Herman Tollius. They were both tutored in the military arts by general Prince Frederick Stamford. After the Patriot revolt had been suppressed in 1787, he in 1788-89 attended the military academy in Brunswick which was considered an excellent military school, together with his brother. In 1790 he visited a number of foreign courts like the one in Nassau and the Prussian capital Berlin, where he first met his future wife.[7]:100

William subsequently studied briefly at the University of Leiden. In 1790 he was appointed a general of infantry in the States Army of which his father was Captain general, and he was made a member of the Council of State of the Netherlands.In November 1791 he took his new bride to The Hague.[7]:101

After the National Convention of the French First Republic had declared war on the stadtholder of the Dutch Republic in February 1793, William was appointed commander-in-chief of the veldleger (mobile army) of the States Army (his father remained the nominal head of the armed forces).[7]:157 As such he commanded the troops that took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1793-95. He took part in the battles of Veurne, Menin, and Wervik (where his brother was wounded) in 1793, the siege of Landrecies (1794), which fortress surrendered to him, and the Battle of Fleurus (1794), to name the most important. In May 1794 he had replaced general Kaunitz as commander of the combined Austro-Dutch forces on the instigation of Emperor Francis II who apparently had a high opinion of him.[7]:270 But the French armies proved too strong, and the allied leadership too inept, and the allies were defeated. The French first entered Dutch Brabant which they dominated after the Battle of Boxtel. When in the winter of 1794-95 the rivers in the Rhine delta froze over, the French breached the southern Hollandic Water Line and the situation became militarily untenable. In many places Dutch revolutionaries took over the local government. After the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam on 18 January 1795 the stadtholder decided to flee to Britain, and his sons accompanied him. (On this last day in Holland his father relieved William honorably of his commands). The next day the Batavian Republic was proclaimed.[7]:341–365, 374–404, 412

Military service

He entered the imperial cavalry in in 1798 under Lacy and Loudon against the Turks, distinguished himself by his bravery, and became a major in few weeks.[6]

In the French campaign of 1793, he served in the advanced guard of the army commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, and at Le Cateau-Cambrésis in 1794 his impetuous charge at the head of his regiment, vigorously supported by twelve British squadrons, broke a whole corps of the French, killed and wounded 3,000 men, and brought off 32 of the enemy's guns. He was immediately decorated with the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa.[8]


Napoleonic Wars

Main articles: Napoleonic Wars and Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars

After taking part in the battles of Amberg and Würzburg in 1796 he was raised to the rank of General-Major, and in 1799 he was promoted to Feldmarschall-Leutnant. At the Battle of Hohenlinden he led a division in the right wing, and was almost the only Austrian general who emerged from that debacle with distinction.[9]

During the retreat, his promptitude and courage saved the right wing of the Austrian army from destruction, and he was afterwards entrusted by the Archduke Charles of Austria with the command of the rearguard.[8]
In 1804, Prince Karl Philipp was created Fürst zu Schwarzenberg in a title identical to, but separate from, that of his brother, Joseph, Prince of Schwarzenberg.[citation needed] In the war of 1805 he held command of a division under Mack, and when Ulm was surrounded by Napoleon in October he was one of the brave band of cavalry, under the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, which cut its way through the hostile lines. In the same year, he received the Commander's Cross of the Order of Maria Theresa and in 1809 he was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece.[8]


In 1806-1809, Schwarzenberg served as the Austrian ambassador to Russia.[6]

Schwarzenburg returned in time to Austria to take part in the Battle of Wagram as another war against France had started, leading a cavalry division in the Reserve Corps.[10]
and was soon afterwards promoted General of Cavalry. After the peace of Vienna, he was sent to Paris to negotiate the marriage between Napoleon and the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. The prince gave a ball in honour of the bride on 1 July 1810, which ended in a fire that killed many of the guests, including his own sister-in-law.[8]

Portrait of Charles I Philipp in 1817
by Anton Einsle.

Napoleon held Schwarzenberg in great esteem, and it was at his request that the prince took command of the Austrian auxiliary corps in the Russian campaign of 1812. The Austrian general won some minor victories against the Russians at Gorodetschna and Wolkowisk. Afterwards, under instructions from Napoleon, he remained for some months inactive at Pultusk.[11]


Wounded at the Battle of Landshut

Prince Charles Philipp was ordered by his brother, Emperor Francis I/II took place on 21 April 1809 with his fellow General Johann von Hiller to see Emperor Napoleon I on the battlefield.

Hiller realized that he would be unable to hold his position for long, as Masséna was trying to block him from escaping. At this point his cavalry were forced back by Lannes’s troops and the Austrians were pushed back into Landshut. The French now quickly seized the northern bridge over the river, and the Austrians withdrew into the main part of the town to defend the southern bridge. The Austrians tried to set fire to this second bridge, but owing to the rainfall over the previous days, this was only partially successful. However the Austrians did manage to close the gates at the end of the bridge. The French were now faced with attacking across the smoldering bridge. Napoleon ordered his aide General Georges Mouton (later comte de Lobau) to assume command of the attacking grenadiers of the 17th Line. In the face of heavy Austrian fire from all sides, Mouton ordered his men to attack without firing their muskets. The grenadiers reached the gateway and broke it down, allowing Bavarian troops to quickly reinforce the breach.[12]

During the battle, Prince Charles Philipp was shot and stabbed five times (stomach and legs), leaving the young Austrian prince limp for rest of his life. The wounded Charles Philipp was carried on his horse and escape form battle.

With the defeated Austrian Army at the Battle of Landshut, his brother, Archduke Charles won the battle in Aspern-Essling, the fellow month for revenge on Prince Charles Philipp's wounded and defeated form the the battle before. While he was covering form his wounds in his brother's palace in Vienna, was nicknamed and was titled, "Archduke-Prince" during his military career.

Field marshal of the Austrian Army

In 1813, when Austria, after many hesitations, took the side of the allies against Napoleon, Schwarzenberg, recently promoted to Feldmarschall, was appointed commander-in-chief of the allied Grand Army of Bohemia. As such, he was the senior of the allied generals who conducted the campaign of 1813-1814.[13]

Under his command, the Allied army was mauled by Napoleon at the Battle of Dresden on 26–27 August and driven back into Bohemia. However, his army defeated pursuing French forces at the Second Battle of Kulm. Returning to the fray, he led the Allied army north again and played a major role in Napoleon's decisive defeat at the Battle of Leipzig on 16–18 October. During the invasion of France in 1814, he beat a French force at the Battle of Bar-sur-Aube in late February. He repelled an attack by Napoleon in the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube on 20–21 March and overcame the last barrier before Paris by winning the Battle of Fère-Champenoise on 25 March. His capture of the French capital on 31 March after the Battle of Paris resulted in the overthrow of Napoleon.[citation needed]

Hundred Days and Napoleon's abdicated

The next year, during the Hundred Days when Napoleon escaped from Elba and regained the French throne, in the hostilities that followed Schwarzenberg commanded the Army of the Upper Rhine (an Austrian-allied army of about a quarter of a million men).[14]


It is the fashion to accuse Schwarzenberg of timidity and over-caution, and his operations can easily be made to appear in that colour when contrasted with those of his principal subordinate, the fiery Blücher. Critics often forget that Schwarzenberg was an Austrian general, that his army was practically the whole force that Austria could put into the field in Central Europe, and was therefore not lightly to be risked, and that the motives of his apparent pusillanimity should be sought in the political archives of Vienna rather than in the text-books of strategical theory.

Prince of Orange

King Charles I's uncle were the last stadtholder William V, Prince of Orange of the Dutch Republic, and his wife Wilhelmina of Prussia. Until 1806, Charles was formally known as Charles I, Prince of Orange-Nassau,[lower-alpha 1] and between 1806 and 1813 also as Prince of Orange. In Berlin on 1 October 1791, Charles married his first cousin (Frederica Louisa) Wilhelmina, born in Potsdam. She was the daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia. After Wilhelmina died in 1837, Charles married Countess Henriette d'Oultremont de Wégimont (Maastricht, 28 February 1792 – Schloss Rahe, 26 October 1864), created Countess of Nassau, on 17 February 1841, also in Berlin.

Exile

Soon after his departure to Britain the Hereditary Prince went back to the Continent,[needs to be explained] where his brother was assembling former members of the States Army in Osnabrück for a planned foray into the Batavian Republic in the Summer of 1795. However, the neutral Prussian government forbade this.[15]:231–235

In 1799, William landed in the current North Holland as part of an Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. The Hereditary Prince was instrumental in fomenting a mutiny on the Batavian naval squadron in the Vlieter, resulting in the surrender of the ships without a fight to the Royal Navy, which accepted the surrender in the name of the stadtholder. The local Dutch population, however, was not pleased with the arrival of the prince. One local Orangist was even executed.[lower-alpha 2] The hoped-for popular uprising failed to materialise. After several minor battles the Hereditary Prince was forced to leave the country again after the Convention of Alkmaar. The mutineers of the Batavian fleet, with their ships,and a number of deserters from the Batavian army accompanied the retreating British troops to Britain. There William formed the King's Dutch Brigade with these troops, a military unit in British service, that swore oaths of allegiance to the British King, but also to the States General, defunct since 1795, "whenever those would be reconstituted."[lower-alpha 3] This brigade trained on the Isle of Wight in 1800 and was eventually used by the British in Ireland.[16]:241–265

When peace was concluded between Great Britain and the French Republic under First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte the Orange exiles were at their nadir. The Dutch Brigade was dissolved on 12 July 1802. Many members of the brigade went home to the Batavian Republic, thanks to an amnesty. The surrendered ships of the Batavian navy were not returned, due to an agreement between the stadtholder and the British government of 11 March 1800.[16]:329–330 Instead the stadtholder was allowed to sell them to the Royal Navy for an appreciable sum.[17]

The stadtholder, feeling betrayed by the British, left for Germany. The Hereditary Prince, having a more flexible mind, went to visit Napoleon at St. Cloud in 1802. He apparently charmed the First Consul, and was charmed by him. Napoleon raised hopes for William that he might have an important role in a reformed Batavian Republic. Meanwhile, William's brother-in-law Frederick William III of Prussia, neutral at the time, promoted a Franco-Prussian convention of 23 May 1802, in addition to the Treaty of Amiens, that gave the House of Orange a few abbatial domains in Germany, that were combined to the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda by way of indemnification for its losses in the Batavian Republic. The stadtholder gave this principality immediately to his son.[15]:452

File:Willem Frederik (1772-1843), erfprins van Oranje-Nassau. Later koning Willem I. Genaamd 'Het mantelportret' Rijksmuseum SK-A-4113.jpeg

William Frederick, Prince of Orange in <acronym class="hidden" title="circa">c.</acronym> 1805–1810

When Napoleon invaded Germany in 1806 and war broke out between the French Empire and Prussia, William supported his Prussian relatives, though he was nominally a French vassal. He received command of a Prussian division which took part in the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt. The Prussians lost that battle and William was forced to surrender his troops rather ignominiously at Erfurt the day after the battle. He was made a prisoner of war, but was paroled soon. Napoleon punished him for his betrayal, however, by taking away his principality. As a parolee, William was not allowed to take part in the hostilities anymore. After the Peace of Tilsit William received a pension from France in compensation.[16]:454–469, 471, 501

In the same year, 1806, his father, the Prince of Orange died, and William not only inherited the title, but also his father's claims on the inheritance embodied in the Nassau lands. This would become important a few years later, when developments in Germany coincided to make William the Fürst (Prince) of a diverse assembly of Nassau lands that had belonged to other branches of the House of Nassau.

But before this came about, in 1809 tensions between Austria and France became intense. William did not hesitate to join the Austrian army as a Feldmarschalleutnant (major-general) in May 1809[16]:516 As a member of the staff of the Austrian supreme commander, Archduke Charles he took part in the Battle of Wagram, where he was wounded in the leg.[16]:520–523

Tsar Alexander I of Russia played a central role in the restoration of the Netherlands. Prince William VI (as he was now known), who had been living in exile in Prussia, met with Alexander I in March 1813. Alexander promised to support William and help restore an independent Netherlands with William as king. Russian troops in the Netherlands participated with their Prussian allies in restoring the dynasty. Dynastic considerations of marriage between the royal houses of Great Britain and the Netherlands, assured British approval.

Sovereign Prince

See also: Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands
File:Landing Willem Frederik Scheveningen 1813.png

Landing of William in Scheveningen on 30 November 1813

After Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig (October 1813), the French troops retreated to France from all over Europe. The Netherlands had been annexed to the French Empire by Napoleon in 1810. But now city after city was evacuated by the French occupation troops. In ensueing the power vacuum a number of former Orangist politicians and former Patriots formed a provisional government in November 1813. Although a large number of the members of the provisional government had helped drive out William V 18 years earlier, it was taken for granted that his son would have to head any new regime. They also agreed it would be better in the long term for the Dutch to restore him themselves, rather than have the Great Powers impose him on the country. The Dutch population were pleased with the departure of the French, who had ruined the Dutch economy, and this time welcomed the prince.[15]:634–642

After having been invited by the Driemanschap (Triumvirate) of 1813, on 30 November 1813 William disembarked from Template:HMS and landed at Scheveningen beach, only a few yards from the place where he had left the country with his father 18 years before, and on 6 December the provisional government offered him the title of King. William refused, instead proclaiming himself "Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands". He also wanted the rights of the people to be guaranteed by "a wise constitution".[15]:643

The constitution offered William extensive (almost absolute) powers. Ministers were only responsible to him, while a unicameral parliament (the States General) exercised only limited power. He was inaugurated as sovereign prince in the New Church in Amsterdam on 30 March 1814. In August 1814, he was appointed Governor-General of the former Austrian Netherlands and the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (more or less modern-day Belgium) by the Allied Powers who occupied that country, ruling them on behalf of Prussia. He was also made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, having received that territory in return for trading his hereditary German lands to Prussia and the Duke of Nassau. The Great Powers had already agreed via the secret Eight Articles of London to unite the Low Countries into a single kingdom. It was believed that a united country on the North Sea would help keep France in check. With the de facto addition of the Austrian Netherlands and Luxembourg to his realm, William had fulfilled his family's three-century dream of uniting the Low Countries.

Reign in the Netherlands

Portrait of William I (1816)

Inauguration of William as sovereign Prince (later King) of the Netherlands in Amsterdam on 30 March 1814

Internal polices

Feeling threatened by Napoleon, who had escaped from Elba, William proclaimed the Netherlands a kingdom on 16 March 1815 at the urging of the powers gathered at the Congress of Vienna. His son, the future king William II, fought as a commander at the Battle of Waterloo. After Napoleon had been sent into exile, William adopted a new constitution which included many features of the old constitution, such as extensive royal powers. He was formally confirmed as hereditary ruler of what was known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the Congress of Vienna.

He was the 876th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain and the 648th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1814.

Principal changes

The States General was divided into two chambers. The Eerste Kamer (First Chamber or Senate or House of Lords) was appointed by the King. The Tweede Kamer (Second Chamber or House of Representatives or House of Commons) was elected by the Provincial States, which were in turn chosen by census suffrage. The 110 seats were divided equally between the North and the South, although the population of the North (2 million) was significantly less than that of the South (3.5 million). The States General's primary function was to approve the King's laws and decrees. The constitution contained many present-day Dutch political institutions; however, their functions and composition have changed greatly over the years.

The constitution was accepted in the North, but not in the South. The under-representation of the South was one of the causes of the Belgian Revolution. Referendum turnout was low, in the Southern provinces, but William interpreted all abstentions to be yes votes. He prepared a lavish inauguration for himself in Brussels, where he gave the people copper coins (leading to his first nickname, the Copper King).

Helmed coat-of-arms of King Karl I

The spearhead of King William's policies was economic progress. As he founded many trade institutions, his second nickname was the King-Merchant. In 1822, he founded the Algemeene Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter Begunstiging van de Volksvlijt, which would become one of the most important institutions of Belgium after its independence. Industry flourished, especially in the South. In 1817, he also founded three universities in the Southern provinces, such as a new University of Leuven, the University of Ghent and the University of Liège. The Northern provinces, meanwhile, were the centre of trade. This, in combination with the colonies (Dutch East Indies, Surinam, Curaçao and Dependencies, and the Dutch Gold Coast) created great wealth for the Kingdom. However, the money flowed into the hands of Dutch directors. Only a few Belgians managed to profit from the economic growth. Feelings of economic inequity were another cause of the Belgian uprising.

William was also determined to create a unified people, even though the north and the south had drifted far apart culturally and economically since the south was reconquered by Spain after the Act of Abjuration of 1581. The North was commercial, Protestant and entirely Dutch-speaking; the south was industrial, Roman Catholic and divided between Dutch and French-speakers.

Officially, a separation of church and state existed in the kingdom. However, William himself was a strong supporter of the Reformed Church. This led to resentment among the people in the mostly Catholic south. William had also devised controversial language and school policies. Dutch was imposed as the official language in (the Dutch-speaking region of) Flanders; this angered French-speaking aristocrats and industrial workers. Schools throughout the Kingdom were required to instruct students in the Reformed faith and the Dutch language. Many in the South feared that the King sought to extinguish Catholicism and the French language.

Belgian uprising

Portrait of Charles I (1833)

In August 1830 Daniel Auber's opera La muette de Portici, about the repression of Neapolitans, was staged in Brussels. Performances of this show seemed to crystallize a sense of nationalism and "Hollandophobia" in Brussels, and spread to the rest of the South. Rioting ensued, chiefly aimed at the kingdom's unpopular justice minister, Cornelis Felix van Maanen, who lived in Brussels. An infuriated William responded by sending troops to repress the riots. However, the riots had spread to other Southern cities. The riots quickly became popular uprisings. Soon an independent state of Belgium was proclaimed. The new monarch and first king, Stanislaus III Albert was also King of Poland since 1822.

The next year, William sent his sons William, the Prince of Orange,[lower-alpha 4] and Prince Frederick to invade the new state. Although initially victorious in this Ten Days' Campaign, the Dutch army was forced to retreat after the threat of French intervention. Some support for the Orange dynasty (chiefly among Flemings) persisted for years but the Dutch never regained control over Belgium. William nevertheless continued the war for eight years. His economic successes became overshadowed by a perceived mismanagement of the war effort. High costs of the war came to burden the Dutch economy, fueling public resentment. In 1839, William was forced to end the war. The United Kingdom of the Netherlands was dissolved by the Treaty of London (1839) and the northern part continued as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was not renamed, however, as the "United"-prefix had never been part of its official name, but rather was retrospectively added by historians for descriptive purposes (cf. Weimar Republic).

Constitutional changes

File:Willem I Apeldoorn.jpg

Statue of Willem I of the Netherlands by Pieter Puype (1913) in Apeldoorn

Constitutional changes were initiated in 1840 because the terms which involved the United Kingdom of the Netherlands had to be removed. These constitutional changes also included the introduction of judicial ministerial responsibility. Although the policies remained uncontrolled by parliament, the prerogative was controllable now. The very conservative William could not live with these constitutional changes.

Abdications and later life

Monument to field-marshall (later King of the Polish) King Charles Philipp I at Schwarzenbergplatz in Vienna.

William abdicated the parts of his kingdom piecemeal. First he abdicated the thrones of Poland-Lithuania to his elder brother Jan IV Joseph in 1839. Upon William Frederick's abdication of Poland on 27 January, John was invested with the kingdom (officially "Poland and Lithuania") on 2 October by Pope Julius III. Constitutional changes were initiated in 1840 because the terms which involved the United Kingdom of the Netherlands had to be removed. These constitutional changes also included the introduction of judicial ministerial responsibility. Although the policies remained uncontrolled by parliament, the prerogative was controllable now. The very conservative William could not live with these constitutional changes. In October 1840, he volunteered abdicated as King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg in favor of his elder son, William, he fulfilled this intent on 7 October 1840 and his eldest son acceded to the Dutch throne. He was furthermore the Duke of Limburg since 1839.

Health issues

On 1841, King Charles travel to Berlin in the Kingdom of Prussia and welcomed by the King Frederick William IV. Then King Frederick William IV gived Charles and his royal family, a Kronprinzenpalais (Crown Prince's Palace) which Frederick William doesn't have any issue. Charles have reported that he suffers from pains in the stomach. His doctor told him that he been diagnosed with Stomach cancer, as his health got worse, but he been a fully recovery in fall of 1849 the following year.

Illness and death

Elderly Charles I in 1842.

After he retired, King Charles I's health got worsten by the end of 1841, he moved in Berlin, where he was greeted by King Frederick William IV of Prussia, when he was suffering stomach cancer a few years ago. He ended the War in Egypt on 1852, which Charles was becoming seriously ill in the fall of 1842. He was suffering from a kidney-ailment on January of 1843. However in 1888, he personally presented a gold medal of honor to the lifeboat hero Dorus Rijkers, for saving the lives of 20 people.

During the last months, during William I's life, he becomes weakened when he visit his brother, John IV for few days, which Charles returned to Berlin. He also suffered stuttering as he becoming a little stunning towards his last days. After three years after his abdications from 1839 to 1840, Charles died on 12 December 1843, at age of sixty-eight. After his death, the war in Crimean broke out at the time of Charles I's death. Charles I was buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.

Legacy

In accordance with the 1817 year politics led Karl I Philipp, both as Crown Prince and as King, such a peaceful policy that Netherlands and Poland by his death have not previously had such a long period of peace.[18] as opposed to the other European royal houses can Sweden and Norway under the Karl I Philipp be seen as exceptions with their constitutional limitations of the Royal power, as Karl I that dealt with the realpolitiker.[19]

As Commander-in-Chief of the Dutch and Polish Armies, hero of the Dutch, the Austrian Army and the first King of the Netherlands, Charles I's legacy remains among the two or three greatest in Dutch and Polish history.[lower-alpha 5] Congressman Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade, famously eulogized Washington, "First in war—first in peace—and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[20]

As first King of the Netherlands, Charles I's popularity in the Austrian Empire as well in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. And was careful to stress that he was chosen by the Dutch beaches to be King, his position was therefore built on citizens ' free choice. Ekedahl, [21] He had read the Montesquieu and was a fan of separation of powers. [22] [23] in France was Karl I's legacy stained by Napoléons memoirs, the former marskalken, both have had their share of the blame for the disastrous French defeat in Russia and for the sixth coalition victory in the battle of Leipzig in 1813. In Norway was Karl I as a person popular, [24] but his reputation was toned down for the sake of national struggle during and after the Union with Sweden. [25] He was the role of the three wars; the Forty Years' War, Lithuanian-Polish Civil Rights Movement and the War of the Ukrainian Succession. His popularity in Netherlands was amazing and indeed the first ruler of the dutch kingdom.

Criticism of Charles I

Throughout his reign, King Charles I received a some criticism. In the Netherlands, Godert van der Capellen, a Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies critized the King for horrible king. But Capellen was wrong that King Charles were in fact a good king. He also was getting criticized on the 1830 loss revolution with Belgium when King Leopold gained independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

As King, was hit from both the right and the left. He came under attack for his supposed anti-business policies, for being a "warmonger", for being a "Fascist" and for being too friendly to King Leopold I and much criticism of Charles centered on fears that he was heading toward an worst monarch like King Charles VI of France.

In the Poland-Lithuania, King Charles was also hard criticized that he "overthrowing" Duke Frederick Augustus I by re-established monarchy in 1817 when he was easily elected in 1816. Long after his death, new lines of attack criticized his policies with his sons and successors, John IV Joseph of Poland and Dutch King Charles II defending their deceased father, which that lead to the Polish–Lithuanian Civil War, which last two years.

Ancestry

Issue

With his wife Wilhelmina, King Charles I had six children:

Titles, styles, and arms

Royal styles of
King William I of the Netherlands
Royal Coat of Arms of the Netherlands.svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire
Royal styles of
William Frederick I of Poland
606px-Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Frist Polish Empire.png
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire

Titles and styles

  • 27 August 1775 – 7 January 1795: His Royal Highness William Frederick, Archduke of Austria
  • 7 January 1795 – 22 February 1805: His Royal Highness Karl Philipp, Prince of Orange
  • 9 April 1806 – 16 March 1815: His Serene Highness William Frederick, Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands
  • 16 March 1815 – 7 October 1840: His Majesty The King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg
  • 19 February 1817 – 27 January 1839: His Majesty King William Frederick I, King of Poland
  • 7 October 1840 – 15 October 1843: His Majesty King William I

In the Netherlands, King William I used the official style.

William I, by the grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Marquis of Veere and Flushing, Count of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Diez, Spiegelberg, Buren, Leerdam and Culemborg, Burgrave of Antwerp, Baron of Breda, Diest, Beilstein, the town of Grave and the lands of Cuyk, IJsselstein, Cranendonk, Eindhoven, Liesveld, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay and Nozeroy, Hereditary and Free Lord of Ameland, Lord of Borculo, Bredevoort, Lichtenvoorde, Het Loo, Geertruidenberg, Clundert, Zevenbergen, Hooge and Lage Zwaluwe, Naaldwijk, Polanen, St Maartensdijk, Soest, Baarn, Ter Eem, Willemstad, Steenbergen, Montfort, St Vith, Bütgenbach, Dasburg, Niervaart, Turnhout and Besançon.."

In Poland-Lithuania, William Frederick I used the official style King William Frederick I, By the Grace of God, King of Poland, Lithuania, and Defender of the Faith, etc.

Arms

Coat of Arms of Sovereign Prince William I of Orange.svg
William, Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands (1813-15)
Wapen van Koning Willem I met helmteken.jpg
King William I of the Netherlands (1815-1840)
POL COA Charles I, Holy Polish Emperor.svg
King William Frederick I of Poland
Royal Monogram of King Willem I of the Netherlands.svg
Royal Monogram of King William VI and I of the Netherlands

In popular culture

Charles XIV and I has been featured as an historical figure in many films about the era of the Ancien Régime, especially those depicting the lives of Marie Antoinette and Madame du Barry.

See also

Notes

  1. Throughout Charles's life, Netherlands and used the Old Style Julian calendar. Poland adopted the New Style Gregorian calendar on 1 March 1797 (N.S.) / 19 February 1797 (O.S.). Old Style is used for dates in this article unless otherwise indicated; however, years are assumed to start from 1 January and not 25 March, which was the English New Year.
  2. Staff writer (25 January 1819). "Scots Greys". The Times (UK): p. 3. "...they will have the additional honour of attending our "Peace-King"..."
  3. Staff writer (29 June 1837). "Will of his late Majesty Charles I". The Times (UK): p. 5. "...ever since the accession of our Peace King..."
  4. Template:German title Fürst
  5. "Charles I, Luminarium.org. Excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Ed. 1910 Vol XV. p 141". http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/charles14.htm.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Tucker 2014.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Bas, François de. Prins Frederik Der Nederlanden en Zijn Tijd, vol. 1. H. A. M. Roelants, 1887. https://books.google.com/books?id=livrAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=editions:KR2VRpMN5HgC&hl=en&sa=X&ei=RrpYUYK6MOa_igLwt4DIBg&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Chisholm 1911, p. 390.
  9. Arnold 2005, p. 249.
  10. Bowden & Tarbox 1980, p. 167.
  11. Chisholm 1911, pp. 390–391.
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Baker547
  13. Chisholm 1911, p. 391.
  14. Siborne 1895, p. 767.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Schama, Simon (1992). Patriots and Liberators. Revolution in the Netherlands 1780-1813. NewYork: Vintage Books. ISBN: 0-679-72949-6.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Bas, François de. Prins Frederik der Nederlanden en zijn tijd, Volume 2. H. A. M. Roelants, 1891. https://books.google.com/books?id=1SzrAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prins+Frederik+der+Nederlanden+en+zijn+tijd,+Volume+2&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ewxaUeOTM-WujALjqoDwBg&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prins%20Frederik%20der%20Nederlanden%20en%20zijn%20tijd%2C%20Volume%202&f=false. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  17. James, W. M. (2002). The Naval History of Great Britain: During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Vol. 2 1797-1799 (reprint ed.). Stackpole books. pp. 309–310.
  18. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NorskUtenrikspolitikksHistorie245-247
  19. "och främst he First was realpolitiker", from the magazine's ' Historia ' loved man ', December 29, 2003
  20. Safire, William, ed. (2004). Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 185. ISBN: 0-393-05931-6. https://books.google.com/?id=EKkO4JBxtVkC&pg=PA185. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  21. 2010 p. 11-12
  22. T:son 1960, Thorvald Höjer s. 125
  23. T:son 1960 Thorvald Höjer, p. 448
  24. Francis Sejersted, 2001, p. 50
  25. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named KarlJohan10-11

Bibliography

  • Ashley, Maurice P. Louis XIV And The Greatness Of France (1965) excerpt and text search
  • Beik, William. Louis XIV and Absolutism: A Brief Study with Documents (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Beik, William. "The Absolutism of Louis XIV as Social Collaboration." Past & Present 2005 (188): 195–224. online at Project MUSE
  • Bluche, François, Louis XIV, (Franklin Watts, 1990)
  • Template:Cite encyclopedia
  • Buckley, Veronica. Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV. London: Bloomsbury, 2008
  • Burke, Peter. The Fabrication of Louis XIV (1994) excerpt and text search
  • Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 5 The Age Of Louis XIV (1908), old, solid articles by scholars; complete text online
  • Campbell, Peter Robert. Louis XIV, 1661–1715 (London, 1993)
  • Church, William F., ed. The Greatness of Louis XIV. (1972).
  • Cowart, Georgia J. The Triumph of Pleasure: Louis XIV and the Politics of Spectacle (U of Chicago Press, 2008) 299 pp; focus on opera and ballet
  • Cronin, Vincent. Louis XIV. London: HarperCollins, 1996 (ISBN 0002720728)
  • Dunlop, Ian. Louis XIV (2000), 512pp excerpt and text search
  • Engerand, Fernand, editor (1899). Inventaire des tableaux du Roy rédigé en 1709 et 1710 par Nicolas Bailly. Paris: Ernest Leroux. Copy at Gallica.
  • Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV (Praeger 1970)
  • Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-297-82997-1); New York: Nan A. Talese, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-385-50984-7)
  • Goubert, Pierre. Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen (1972), social history from Annales School
  • Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XIV to Napoleon (1715–1799) (2002)
  • Lewis, W. H. The Splendid Century: Life in the France of Louis XIV (1953) excerpt and text search; also online complete edition
  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The Ancien Régime: A History of France 1610–1774 (1999), survey by leader of the Annales School excerpt and text search
  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714 (1999) excerpt and text search
  • Mitford, Nancy. The Sun King (1995), popular excerpt and text search
  • Nolan, Cathal J. Wars of the Age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization . (2008) 607pp; over 1000 entries; ISBN 978-0-313-33046-9
  • Rowlands, Guy. The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest, 1661–1701 (2002) online edition
  • Rubin, David Lee, ed. Sun King: The Ascendancy of French Culture during the Reign of Louis XIV. Washington: Folger Books and Cranbury: Associated University Presses, 1992.
  • Rule, John C., Louis XIV and the craft of kingship 1969.
  • Shennan, J. H. Louis XIV (1993) online edition
  • Thompson, Ian. The Sun King's Garden: Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre And the Creation of the Gardens of Versailles. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2006 ISBN 1-58234-631-3
  • Treasure, Geoffrey. Louis XIV (London, 2001).
  • Wilkinson, Rich. Louis XIV (2007)
  • Wolf, John B. Louis XIV (1968), the standard scholarly biography online edition

External links

William I of the Netherlands
Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine
Born: 24 August 1775 Died: 12 December 1843
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis II
as King of Holland
Sovereign Prince
20 November 1813 – 16 March 1815
Succeeded by
Himself as King
Preceded by
Himself
as Sovereign Prince
King of the Netherlands
16 March 1815 – 7 October 1840
Succeeded by
William II
Vacant
Title last held by
Francis I
as Duke of Luxembourg
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
16 March 1815 – 7 October 1840
Vacant
Title last held by
Francis I
as Duke of Limburg
Duke of Limburg
5 September 1839 – 7 October 1840
Vacant
Title last held by
Napoleon I
King of Italy
27 May 1819 – 7 October 1840
Preceded by
Frederick Augustus I
as Duke of Warsaw
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania

19 February 1817 – 27 January 1839
Succeeded by
Jan IV Joseph
Dutch royalty
Preceded by
William V
Prince of Orange
9 April 1806 – 16 March 1815
Succeeded by
Charles II
New creation Count of Nassau
1840–43
Abolished
German royalty
Preceded by
Johann Nepomuk Anton of Schwarzenberg
Prince of Schwarzenberg
22 February 1805 – 15 October 1853
Succeeded by
Louis XVIII
as King of France
Political offices
New title President of the Dutch East Indies
1826–1838
Succeeded by
William II


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